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关于JSTOR档案库的使用研究:What Novels Can Do That Films Can't (And Vice Versa) [4]

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:案例分析 Case Study登出时间:2011-01-20编辑:anterran点击率:13447

论文字数:8068论文编号:org201101201026245946语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:STOR档案库使用研究NovelsFilms

); then they arose early on Sunday
morning (event C); and finally, here they are, driving along the road
(event D). Notice, incidentally, the disparity between the story order and
discourse order: story order is A, B, C, D; discourse order is A, C, B, D.
This first sentence, then, is straight narration which takes us out of
the expository past into the narrative present. Now the very next sentence
is clearly of a different order: ". . . it [the cart] had a roof supported by
four iron posts to which were attached curtains, which had been raised
so that they could see the countryside [.. . elle avait un toit supporte par
quatre montants de fer ou s'attachaient les rideaux qu'on avait releves
pour voir le paysage]" (p. 63). This is, of course, unadulterated description.
Story-time stops as the narrator characterizes a story object, a prop.
The sentence reflects the static character of the passage. The verb "to
have" is clearly equivalent to the typical copula of description: it is not a
verb of action and communicates no sense of an event but simply evokes
the quality of an object or state of affairs. Maupassant could have-and
more recent writers probably would have-avoided direct description by
writing something like "The cart, its roof supported by four iron posts,
rolled merrily down the road." This active syntax would have kept
story-time going and would have eased in the characterization of the
cart. Maupassant's prose provokes, rather, the start-and-stop effect customary
to early fiction, a fashion now somewhat dated. Not that the
surface verb, the verb in the actual verbal medium, needs to be the copula
"to be." It could be a perfectly active verb in the strict grammatical sense
and still evoke the descriptive copula at the deep narrative level, as in the
sentence that immediately follows: "The curtain at the back . . . fluttered
in the breeze like a flag [celui de derriere, seul, flottait au vent, comme
un drapeau]." "Fluttered" is an active verb, but from the textual point of
view, the sentence is pure description; it is not tied into the event chain.
The sentence could as easily be phrased, "In the back there was a curtain
fluttering in the breeze like a flag."
The paragraph continues with a brief description of Mme Dufour
and makes references to the grandmother, to Henriette, and to a yellowhaired
youth who later becomes Henriette's husband. Paragraphs immediately
thereafter continue the narrative by citing events: the passing
of the fortifications at Porte Maillot; the reaching of the bridge of
Neuilly; the pronouncement by M. Dufour that at last they have reached
the country, and so on.
Critwl Iqiy Autumn 1980 125
Let's consider the opening scene of jean Renoir's 1936 film version
of this story, also entitled Une Partie de campagne. (Ideally, you would
watch the film as you read this essay, but something of the effect, I hope,
can be communicated by the following illustrations.) The whole sequence
introducing the Dufours takes only a minute of viewing time, so
we don't have much time to remark the details of their borrowed cart.
But looking at a single frame enables us to examine it at our leisure (fig.
We note, for instance, that the cart is absurdly small, has only two
wheels, bears the name of the owner, "Ch. Gervais," painted on the side,
and has a railing on the roof. There is no论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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