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关于JSTOR档案库的使用研究:What Novels Can Do That Films Can't (And Vice Versa) [6]

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:案例分析 Case Study登出时间:2011-01-20编辑:anterran点击率:13504

论文字数:8068论文编号:org201101201026245946语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:STOR档案库使用研究NovelsFilms

zin writes about in his essay "Painting and Cinema," the kind in which
the camera moves around close-up details of a single painting. An
example of this genre is Alain Resnais' film on Picasso's Guernica (fig. 2).
No less a personage than the Inspector General of Drawing of the
French Department of Education complained: "However you look at it
the film is not true to the painting. Its dramatic and logical unity
establishes relationships that are chronologically false." The inspector
was speaking about the relationships and chronology in the implied
narrative of Picasso's development as an artist, but he might as well have
been speaking of the relationships and chronology implicit in a narrative
hypothecated on the visual details of Guernica itself. By controlling the
viewer's order and duration of perceiving, a film scanning a painting
might imply the double time structure of narrative texts. For example, if
the camera wandering over Guernica were first focused on the head and
lantern-bearing arm sweeping in through the window, then shifted to
the screaming horse, then to the body on the ground with the broken
sword and flower in its hand, the audience might read into the painting a
Novels and Films
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FI;. 2.-Pablo Picasso, Guernica. Museum of Modern Art, F
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128 Seymour Chatman
story sequence which Picasso did not intend: first the alarm was heard,
then the horse whinnied as the bombs fell, then one victim died.
The key word in my account of the different ways that visual details
are presented by novels and films is "assert." I wish to communicate by
that word the force it has in ordinary rhetoric: an "assertion" is a statement,
usually an independent sentence or clause, that something is in
fact the case, that it is a certain sort of thing, that it does in fact have
certain properties or enter into certain relations, namely, those listed.
Opposed to asserting there is mere "naming." When I say, "The cart was
tiny; it came onto the bridge," I am asserting that certain property of the
cart of being small in size and that certain relation of arriving at the
bridge. However, when I say "The green cart came onto the bridge," I
am asserting nothing more than its arrival at the bridge; the greenness of
the cart is not asserted but slipped in without syntactic fuss. It is only
named. Textually, it emerges by the way. Now, most film narratives seem
to be of the latter textual order: it requires special effort for films to
assert a property or relation. The dominant mode is presentational, not
assertive. A film doesn't say, "This is the state of affairs," it merely shows
you that state of affairs. Of course, there could be a character or a
voice-over commentator asserting a property or relation; but then the
film would be using its sound track in much the same way as fiction uses
assertive syntax. It is not cinematic description but merely description by
literary assertion transferred to film. Filmmakers and critics traditionally
show disdain for verbal commentary because it explicates what, they feel,
should be implicated visually. So in its essential visual mode, film does
not describe at all but merely presents; or better, it depicts, in the original
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