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美国个人主义的探讨A Study on American Individualism [6]

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:职称论文 Scholarship Papers登出时间:2012-03-15编辑:lena ding点击率:17367

论文字数:6332论文编号:org201203151330483806语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:American Individualismpoliticseconomicssociety


books of the nineteenth century, Edward Bellamy's 1888 fantasy Looking Backward, an effort to imagine a perfected postindustrial Boston, reconstituted as a socialist cooperative commonwealth in the year 2000. Bellamy openly reviled individualism, proposing in its place a post-Christian "religion of solidarity," which would radically de-emphasize the self, and instead emphasize social bonds over individual liberty (and traditional Christian doctrine).
The popularity of Bellamy's book showed that there was a market hungry for such ideas, and many of the most "progressive" forces of the day—ranging from the cooperation-minded Knights of Labor, the theological advocates of a modernist "social gospel," to Progressive reformers such as Herbert Croly, Jane Addams, and John Dewey—unreservedly admired and emulated its spirit. Indeed, the Progressive movement itself, at least in some of its manifestations, advanced a new corporate ideal that sought to downplay individualism and instead to defend and preserve "the public interest" in the face of industrial capital's power. In the hands of a sophisticated thinker like Dewey, a case was made that the values of community and individuality, far from being in opposition, are mutually supporting and mutually sustaining, particularly in an age dominated by large industrial combinations, immense asymmetries of wealth and power, and vast impersonal networks of communication. It was pointless, in their view, to restore the small-scale community of days past. Economic and social forces had rendered such community, with its personal bonds and face-to-face business transactions, impossible. The task ahead was the creation of something new, which Dewey called "The Great Community," a systematically reconstituted social order that, it was hoped, would adapt the best features of the old community forms to the inexorable realities of the new economy and society, and thereby preserve the possibility of a healthy form of individuality as well.

2.3.1 The Evolvement of American Individualism
The cultural changes of the 1990s (including multiculturalism, the advances of feminism, a growing rejection of moral relativism, new forms of spiritual self-expressiveness and greater attentiveness to children and childcare) can only be understood in the context of how the revolution in social values that took the nation by storm in the 1960s and 1970s has subsequently evolved.
The transformation in values from the mid-sixties to the late-seventies confronts Americans with one of the sharpest discontinuities in Americans’ history as a culture. Observers have attached a variety of names to the changes. Journalist Tom Wolfe famously labeled the period as the "me generation". More academically, Ron Inglehart referred to the new values as "post-materialist" and documented their spread from the United States to the other industrialized democracies. A label for the new ethos that I and others prefer is "expressive individualism."
It is not a crisp sound-bite, but it has the virtue of precision: the value changes revolve around the twin issues of the roles that "expressiveness" and "individualism" are to play in people’s lives. The new ethos gave priority to the expressive side of life even at the expense of economic benefits. By the end of the 1970s, the majority of Americans had decided that self-expressiveness was too important for artists and writers to monopolize: everyone should have the opportunity to develop 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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