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Economics Essay-锁定效应及其成因

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-11-05编辑:chenyuting点击率:2577

论文字数:3139论文编号:org201511022008142151语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:The Lock In Effect锁定效应技术变革

摘要:本文旨在解释锁定效应,首先描述锁定的概念,用理论知识来解释这一概念,随后列举了著名的锁定案例开进行解释分析,并讨论其主要原因。

Economics Essay-锁定效应及其成因

The Lock In Effect And Its Causes

本文旨在通过历史上最著名的例子来解释“锁定效应”及其成因。我们将开始描述锁定的概念,然后我们将尝试解释理论背后的路径依赖性和不断增加的回报。在下半场的文件中,我们将进行历史上一次最著名的锁定案件,我们将讨论其主要原因。

在企业领域中最重要的战略选择之一是技术变革,这与技术管理、组织学习和产业组织经济学有关。在这种情况下,我们会有一个战略困境,在那里我们将有两个不同的可能性。首先,公司可以利用现有的和众所周知的技术,在长期发展下它可以探索一种新的技术,可以有更多的优势。大公司通常决定投资于他们的核心业务,在那里他们有更多的可能性和回报。这就产生了一个战略问题,他们宁愿留在旧的技术,而不愿意发展一个新的技术。因此,新的替代技术在市场上遇到了很大的困难。当另一种选择比如可能更好的技术不能提高其市场份额时,锁定就出现了,因为有一些卓越的和不利的技术。当一些新的和可供选择的发明来完成消费者的需求时,一个主导技术开始出现。在开始的时候,有一个不确定的时期被称为“发酵时代”(Unruh200),其中所有的技术相互争斗的性能改进了市场份额。这一时期的竞争结束时,一个技术获得足够的市场份额,并成为一个标准。要强调的是,初始选择是任意的。这就导致了企业从新产品开发到产品生产过程的改进,这一政策的转变。卓越的技术,是没有必要赢得市场份额的战争的。由于路径依赖的过程,一个劣势的人可以赢,因为时间、策略和历史环境比最优性更重要。在这项技术的发展和商业化过程中,我们可以看到存在的规模报酬递增,这是获胜的主要原因。

This paper has the purpose to explain the lock-in effect and its causes through the most famous example in history. We will start describing the concept of lock-in and then we'll try to explain the theory behind path-dependences and increasing returns. In the second half of the document we will undertake a trip between the most famous cases of lock-in in history and we'll discuss their main causes.

In the corporate field one of the most important strategic choice is technological change, this is connected with technology management, organizational learning and industrial organization economics. In this case we can have a strategic dilemma, where we can have two different possibilities. First the firm can exploit an existing and well known technology or it can explore a new technology that can give more advantages in the long period. Huge firms usually decide to invest in their core business where they have more possibilities and returns. This produce a strategic problem where they prefer to stay in their old technology indeed to develop a new one. So new and alternative technologies meet big difficulties to develop in the market. Lock-in occurs when an alternative and maybe better technology can't increase its market share because there are some predominance and maybe worst technology. The emergence of a dominant technology starts when some new and alternative inventions compete to accomplish the demand and the needs of consumers. In the beginning there is a uncertainly period called 'era of ferment' (Unruh 200), in which all technologies fight each other for performance improvements and market share. This period of competition ends when one technology obtain enough market share and becomes a standard. To underline is that the initial choice is arbitrary. This causes a change in the policy of the firms that move innovation from the development of new products to the improvement of standard product's process. The superior technology not necessary win the war for the market share. An inferior one can win thanks to path-dependent processes; where time, strategy and historic circumstance are more important than optimality. During development and commercialization of this technology we can see the presence of increasing returns to scale that are the main reason for winning.

Path dependence implies that a lower advantage or a temporary lead for some technology, product of standard provoke huge and irreversible pressure on the allocations of resources in the market. Also when in the market there are voluntary decisions and individually maximizing behavior. There are three types of path 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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