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发展中国家更有利和差别待遇:迈向新方法在WTO

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:本科毕业论文 Thesis登出时间:2016-03-25编辑:anne点击率:1858

论文字数:7548论文编号:org201603251051073276语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:$ 55

关键词:贸易政策经济发展贸易谈判

摘要:了解和解决社会改革对穷人和弱势群体的影响,并采取行动,以促进调整是必要的。

摘要:本文讨论了可能在WTO被视为世贸组织贸易部长的号召,使在世贸组织特殊和差别待遇(SDT)规定更有效的选择。我们认为该穿货物贸易和发展中国家有出口利益的服务的非歧视自由化重点的新方法;通过努力提高WTO规则和审议机制的发展相关性允许跨世贸组织成员较大的分化在确定WTO规则的范围补充。
Abstract: This paper discusses options that could be considered in the WTO to respond to the call of WTO trade ministers to make special and differential treatment (SDT) provisions in the WTO more effective. We argue for a new approach that puts the emphasis on nondiscriminatory liberalization of trade in goods and services in which developing countries have an export interest; complemented by efforts to improve the development relevance of WTO rules and consideration of mechanisms to allow for greater differentiation across WTO members in determining the reach of WTO disciplines.

Introduction and Overview介绍和概述


国际贸易对发展和减贫至关重要。它有助于提高和维持增长的基本要求为贫困,给企业和家庭进入世界市场的商品,服务和知识,降低价格和提高消费品的质量和品种,并促进经济活动的专业化为减少其中,国家有比较优势的领域。贸易和贸易机会是产生了与通过扩散和技术吸收学习相关的投资和正外部性的重要。从世界市场经济的庇护政策,代理商阻碍这些溢出效应和动态收益(巴格瓦蒂,1988;欧文,2001年)。这并不意味着“一刀切”或否认调整成本和措施,以保障贫困家庭的利益必须在政策设计中考虑。
International trade is important for development and poverty alleviation. It helps raise and sustain growth—a fundamental requirement for reducing poverty—by giving firms and households access to world markets for goods, services and knowledge, lowering prices and increasing the quality and variety of consumption goods, and fostering the specialization of economic activity into areas where countries have a comparative advantage. Trade and trade opportunities are important for generating the investment and positive externalities that are associated with learning through the diffusion and absorption of technology. Policies that shelter economic agents from the world market impede these spillover benefits and dynamic gains (Bhagwati, 1988; Irwin, 2001). This does not imply that ‘one size fits all’ or to deny that adjustment costs and measures to safeguard the interests of poor households must be considered in the design of policies.
Understanding and addressing the impacts of reform on the poor and vulnerable in society, and taking action to facilitate adjustment is necessary (McCulloch et al., 2001).
The primary determinant of the benefits from trade is a country’s own policies— the principle that ‘what you do is what you get’. Determining the appropriate trade policy stance and the associated complementary policies for a country should consequently figure in the design of development and poverty-reduction strategies. In part, however,this policy stance will be affected by what other countries do. A major question confronting many developing country governments is if and how trade policy should take into account that the global trade environment is distorted by a variety of policies pursued by trading partners. Measures that restrict market access for developing countries’ exports goods and services and that lower (raise) the prices of their exports (imports) have direct negative effects on investment incentives and the growth potential of their economies.
For example, agricultural support policies—high rates of subsidization and trade barriers—by developed countries increase world price volatility, lock developing countries out of major markets and can lead to import surges that have highly detrimental effects on developing country farmers. The existence of such policies has become a major political barrier to further trade policy reform 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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