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论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:本科毕业论文 Thesis登出时间:2016-03-25编辑:anne点击率:1948

论文字数:7548论文编号:org201603251051073276语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:$ 55



Abstract: This paper discusses options that could be considered in the WTO to respond to the call of WTO trade ministers to make special and differential treatment (SDT) provisions in the WTO more effective. We argue for a new approach that puts the emphasis on nondiscriminatory liberalization of trade in goods and services in which developing countries have an export interest; complemented by efforts to improve the development relevance of WTO rules and consideration of mechanisms to allow for greater differentiation across WTO members in determining the reach of WTO disciplines.

Introduction and Overview介绍和概述

International trade is important for development and poverty alleviation. It helps raise and sustain growth—a fundamental requirement for reducing poverty—by giving firms and households access to world markets for goods, services and knowledge, lowering prices and increasing the quality and variety of consumption goods, and fostering the specialization of economic activity into areas where countries have a comparative advantage. Trade and trade opportunities are important for generating the investment and positive externalities that are associated with learning through the diffusion and absorption of technology. Policies that shelter economic agents from the world market impede these spillover benefits and dynamic gains (Bhagwati, 1988; Irwin, 2001). This does not imply that ‘one size fits all’ or to deny that adjustment costs and measures to safeguard the interests of poor households must be considered in the design of policies.
Understanding and addressing the impacts of reform on the poor and vulnerable in society, and taking action to facilitate adjustment is necessary (McCulloch et al., 2001).
The primary determinant of the benefits from trade is a country’s own policies— the principle that ‘what you do is what you get’. Determining the appropriate trade policy stance and the associated complementary policies for a country should consequently figure in the design of development and poverty-reduction strategies. In part, however,this policy stance will be affected by what other countries do. A major question confronting many developing country governments is if and how trade policy should take into account that the global trade environment is distorted by a variety of policies pursued by trading partners. Measures that restrict market access for developing countries’ exports goods and services and that lower (raise) the prices of their exports (imports) have direct negative effects on investment incentives and the growth potential of their economies.
For example, agricultural support policies—high rates of subsidization and trade barriers—by developed countries increase world price volatility, lock developing countries out of major markets and can lead to import surges that have highly detrimental effects on developing country farmers. The existence of such policies has become a major political barrier to further trade policy reform 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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