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经济学assignment代写:量化宽松的影响和风险

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2016-10-13编辑:cinq点击率:3598

论文字数:3000论文编号:org201610131719222568语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:经济学assignment代写量化宽松

摘要:本文是留学生经济学assignment代写范文,主要内容是讲述量化宽松的基本高辇,已经在金融危机状态下,量化宽松所带来的影响和风险等内容。

INTRODUCTION 简介

2008-09年的金融危机下的政府和中央银行在全球金融危机的影响世界各地的交易。
The Financial crisis of 2008-09 submerged the governments and central banks globally, financial crisis affected trades all over the world.

在早期经济增长放缓的过程中,传统的工具被运用于财政政策的调整,降低了短期政府债务的利率水平。货币市场的均衡是通过利率的变化来实现。但即使利率降低到接近零分,英国和美国已采取新的货币政策工具,称为“定量宽松”并没有被他们在过去使用。日本央行在2001次危机期间推出了定量宽松政策。然而,这个政策并没有多大帮助,日本经济增长停滞。。
定量宽松的货币政策,增加货币供应的货币化系统债务。通过使用定量宽松政策,走出通货紧缩的经济可能会有风险,进入高通胀。量化宽松政策需要监管和监管。英国和美国正在大规模使用量化宽松政策。本文强调了由英格兰银行对全球贸易英国经济影响的定量政策的影响。
During the earlier economic slowdown, traditional tools were used such has regulation of fiscal policy, setting the low interest rate on short term government debt. Equilibrium in the money market is achieved by changes in interest rate (John Solman, p621). But even after reducing the interest rate to nearly zero per cent, UK and US had to adopt a new tool of monetary policy named as 'Quantitative easing' which has not been used in the past by them (Dean Drysdale, 2010). The term Quantitative easing was introduced by central bank of Japan during 2001 crisis. However, this policy did not help japans' economy much and the growth remained stagnant. (Shirakawa Masaaki, 2002).

Quantitative easing increases the money supply in the system by monetizing [1] the debt (Dean Drysdale, 2010). By using QE to take economy out of deflation might risk getting it into the high inflation. QE needs to be monitored and regulated. UK and USA are using QE on massive scales. Thisreport highlights the impact of the quantitative policy taken by Bank of England on UK Economy and effect on the global trade.

QUANTITATIVE EASING IN THEORY 定量宽松理论

Quantitative easing is the monetary tool used by central bank to stimulate the economy. It is an economic tool used to eradicate the stagnation in the economy by injecting money into it. Central banks lower the interest rates to encourage people to spend but when the interest rate cannot be lowered any further then central bank has to inject money in to the economy to increase the trade and flow of the money in the system(bbc.com, 2010).

Equation of exchange or also known as quantity theory of money shows the relation between aggregate demand, money and GDP. According to the theory, MV = PT. Where M is the money in the economy, V is the speed with which money flows around the economy. P is the price level and T is the GDP or value of transactions. Quantitative easing aims to increase the T i.e. the number of transaction in the system by increasing the money. It also implies that if inflation has to be controlled it should be done by controlling money supply (John Solman, p 630)

If injection of money is not equal to withdrawals, disequilibrium will exists. Equilibrium can be regained by change in GDP. Over many years, Keynesian model was used to explain the monetary policy. Keynesian model arguedthat GDP is determined by aggregate demand and governments should manage the level of aggregate demand to avoid recession. (John Solman, p626). However this model will work through influencing expectation (Eggertsson and Woodford ,2003).Expectation played an important role in quantitative easing policy. If people believe that money supply will cure inflation then their will increase investment and if they think otherwise then it will lead to liquidity trap - i.e. injecting money is not equal to withdrawal. (johnSolman, p649)
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