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MANAGEMENT, IMAGE AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING [3]

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2010-12-02编辑:anterran点击率:10495

论文字数:论文编号:org201012021407561207语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:MANAGEMENT, IMAGE AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTINGACCOUNTING

>the trend towards generality in management courses was decisively under way,
driven by factors which remain operative today. Courses which promise a generality
of application appeal to a broader market than those which are sector specific.
They also promise a wider range of career options since the end-qualification is
portrayed as portable. The underlying assumption—largely tacit at this stage—was
that management is always and everywhere the same.
Driven by the logic of competition and predation, meanwhile, capitalism itself
was changing. Messily but inexorably, the era of family capitalism was giving
way to that of entrepreneurialism, and this, in turn was giving way to managerial
capitalism (Chandler, 1977). In consequences, the range of managerial practice
was extending into functions previously reserved for ownership, such as finance,
marketing strategy and company policy itself. As early as 1911, Harvard had
responded by introducing a course in business policy, “to develop an approach to
business problems from the top management point of view” (Copeland, 1958, 42).
By the early 1920s, Harvard’s courses had re-focused on “certain broad functions
of the business enterprise”: business policy, business law, statistics, marketing,
accounting, money and banking, corporate finance and social factors in business.
Again one can discern the not-very-hidden hand of the market. Though the
managers who practice the corporate-level functions are few indeed, what student,
especially what student from Harvard, would opt for a course which omits the
disciplines of corporate management? To do so would be to declare at the outset
the modesty of one’s ambitions. Driven by these twin tendencies—the detachment
of management from expertise in the managed process, and its identification with
corporate-level functions—the modern conception of what counts as management
science was already emerging.
Also in place was its rationale: the doctrine of managerial essentialism which
justifies both the decontextualization of the management syllabus and the inclusion
of corporate level functions in courses at all levels. Here it is expressed in the
1968 edition of a popular management textbook which, together with its successor
volume, has now run through ten editions:
. . . managers perform the same function regardless of their place in the organizational
structure or the type of enterprise in which they are engaged. . . getting things done with
or through people. The implications of this principle are several. In the first place it means
284 P. Armstrongthat anything significant that is said about the functions of onemanager applies to allmanagers. . . . In the second place, the principle implies that management knowledgeand experience are transferable from department to department and from enterpriseto enterprise. (Koontz & O’Donnell, 1968, p. 54)
The influence of this thinking on what is taught in the name of managementhas been profound. “A valid distinction cannot be drawn between the study ofmanagement for one purpose rather than another” wrote Urwick in the report whichintroduced the UK’s first national system of management education (Ministry ofEducation, 1947, p. 7). As with the principle, so it was with the practice. The
syllabus for Urwick’s 1948 course for “managing directors and other high executives”delivered under the auspices of the Institut论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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