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美国物流本科论文-国际物流现状探析《International Logistics》

论文作者:英语论文网论文属性:本科毕业论文 Thesis登出时间:2012-03-27编辑:shayne fan点击率:9071

论文字数:2934论文编号:org201203271359131975语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:International LogisticsDEQDAFDDPDDU

摘要:国内和国际物流现在联系越来越密切。国际物流——需要跨越国界的货物运输。随着新兴国家的企图恢复其政治和经济力量,它们引起了国际贸易传统方式的改变。

International Logistics

 

 Interface
 It is increasingly difficult to keep separate the practices of domestic and international logistics. International logistics— the movement of goods across national boundaries— occurs in the following situations:
 A firm exports a portion of a product made or grown, for example, papermaking machinera to Sweden, wheat to Russia, or coal to Japan.
 A firm imports raw materials such as pilpwood form Canada, or manufactured products such as motorcycles from Italy or Japan.
 Goods are partially assembled in one country and then shipped to another, where then are futher assembled or proccessed. For example, a firm stamps electronic components in the United States. It ships them to a free trade zone in the Far East, where low-cost labor assembles them, and then the assembled components are returner to the United States to become part of the finished product.
 The firm is global in outlook and srrs almost all nations as being markets, sources of supply, or sites for markers or for assembly operations. 
 Because of geography, a nation's domestic commerce crosses foreign borders, often in bond. For example,goods moving by through Canada, travel in bond, which means that the carrier handling them has a special legal obligation to keep them sealed and to mark certain that they are not released for sale or use within the country they are traveling through. Products shipped in bond are not subject to normal duties of the country through which they are passing.
 Until World War II, concepts of international trade were simple. Industrialized powers maintained political and economic colonies that were sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and markets for manufactured products. When dealing with colonies, manufactures in the parent country bought low and sold high. World War II brought an end to the colonial system; since then, emerging nations have attempted to develop their own political and economic systems with varying degrees of success. As emerging nations attempt to flex their political and economic muscles, they cause changes in the traditional ways of conducting international business.
 Developing nations insist that an increasing proportion of assembling and manufacturing be conducted within their own borders. Because the role of these governments in their own economies is substantial, they are able to exert considerable influence over outside firms desiring to do business within their borders. They want their share of the supply chain's activity. They are becoming more insistent that much of their foreign trade be carried on vessels or planes owned by companies headquartered within their boundaries. They want their local firms to have at least their fair share of revenues from the sale of freight-forwarding services, marine Insurance, and other distribution functions.
 Traditionally,the United States has been a major exporter of manufactured goods and agricultural products. Because of its wealth, the Unites States has also imported many consumer goods, however, in the last three decades; several major changes have upset these traditional patterns. A new equilibrium has yet to be reached. The United States has been running trade deficits annually because of its large purchases of imported oil.
 The fluctuating value of the U.S. dollar has an impact on the flow of both exports and imports. When the dollar is weak, it is论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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