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利物浦国际学院课程作业:批判性讨论的贡献实证主义对社会的研究-Critically discuss the contribution of positivism to the study of society

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:课程作业 Coursework登出时间:2012-11-19编辑:anne点击率:2609

论文字数:2057论文编号:org201211191618483481语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:$ 33

关键词:Western philosophiespositivism利物浦国际学院哲学实证主义

摘要:music industry(master之前的pre-master課程,是social science利物浦国际学院的論文)这个论文是英国利物浦大学的一个课程作业,主要是涉及哲学的...

 1.  What is the positivism?

实证是什么?
作为一种在西方哲学的传统,“实证主义”通常是指在一定的哲学对人类知识的态度。它是不会预先假设如何人获得的知识,它不提供心理或历史的基础上的知识。实证主义是一套规则或评价标准有关人类的活动:它告诉我们这世界语句的内容属于知识范围,并提供我们的标准可以被用于区分可能或不能能够合理问自己这个问题。因此,实证主义是一种规范性的态度,关注我们应该如何使用“知识”,“科学”,“知道”,“信息”及其他条款。同样的原则也区分的实证主义,在哲学和科学之间的争论,值得我们思考的问题,属于解决不了的问题,或不值得考虑。

As a kind of traditions in the Western philosophies, the "positivism" usually refers to a certain philosophical attitude to human knowledge. It is not going to pre-assume how the human being get the knowledge, and it does not provide the psychology or historical basis of the knowledge. The positivism is a set of rules or evaluation criteria about the human’s activities: it tells us which contents of the world statements belong to the knowledge scope, and provides us the criteria can be used to distinguish can be able to or cannot be able to reasonably ask the questions. Thus, positivism is a kind of normative attitudes, it concerned about how we should use the "knowledge", "Science", "know", "information" and other terms. Similarly, the principles of positivism also distinguished, in the debate between Philosophy and science, which belong to the problems worth thinking about, and which belong to the problems cannot be resolved or not worth consideration. "The word 'Positive', comes from the Latin word positivus, its meaning is 'firm'." The Positivism is not only one of the major research methods in society, but also one of the major philosophical schools, in general, the positivism origins from philosophy, but it has been widely used in the social field. Positivism has been importantly a tradition in Western philosophy since ancient Greek. However, as an intelligent trend, positivism was seeded in seventieth century European thought and spread over in eightieth century as forming a seemingly conflict between rationalism and empiricism, under which concealed deeply agreements that distinguished between contingent knowledge of the world and necessary knowledge of the eternal. In France, due to influence of eightieth century enlightenment the French philosophy in ninetieth century had apparent political factors. Philosophically it could be related closely to the romantic tradition in French philosophy because of French Revolution.
  
The birth and development of the positivism
The social and historical roots
The ideological and theoretical roots
The social backgrounds
The positivism’s influence to the study of the society

对实证主义的诞生和发展
社会和历史根源
思想理论根源
的社会背景
实证的研究对社会的影响力

REFERENCES

[1] Leszek Kolakowski, The Alienation of Reason: A History of Positivist Thought. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. 1968.
[2] Descartes, Discourse on Method and Meditations, translated with an introduction by Laurence J. Lafleur, Macmillan/Library of Liberal Arts, 1960.
[3] George Berkeley, Three Dialogues Between Hylas and Philonous, edited with introduction by Robert Merrihew Adams, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. 1979.
[4] F. Copestone, A History of Philosophy, volume IX, Maine de Brian to Sartre, London: Search Press, 1975; D. W. Hamlin, A History of Western Philosophy, London: Penguin Books, 1987.
[5] F. Copestone, A History of Philosophy, volume IX.
[6] Ted Benton, Ian Crib. Philosophy of Social Science[M].论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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