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Philosophy Essay:​正义论学说

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-11-19编辑:chenyuting点击率:2969

论文字数:2804论文编号:org201511082046376331语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:Theories of Social Justice税收政策正义论学说

摘要:本文讨论了Bentham、Rawls、Sen的正义论学说,并结合正义原则来讨论税收政策和防卫过度导致杀人情况下的看法。

Philosophy Essay正义论学说

A Theory Of Justice 


你认为正义论应该关注个人的实际行为或理想的制度吗?在以下两种情况下,利用正义所必需的原则来解释你的答案:a)税收政策和b)自卫杀人。

首先,我将对Bentham、Rawls、Sen的正义论进行概述,并描述了Sen对Bentham 和Rawls学说的批判,然后再看看我眼中Sen的理论的不足之处。这之后,我将使用Sen的功能框架来解释在税收政策和自卫谋杀。
关于社会公正,利益分配,权利和机会的理论有很多。然而,要充分了解他们,我们还需要看看他们的理论基础,优势和适用性。
功利主义理论提倡实现人的效用。通过这个手段才能使广大人民获得最大程度的幸福。所以,这个理论只关心一个人的幸福,并把它看做一个目标,而其他的东西则是用来实现幸福的工具。因此,社会、政府和法律都应该达到创造它们的效用。Mills提出,如果我们的行动产生快乐,那么他们是有效的,否则它们就是不正确的。这一概念的主要缺点之一是,它不考虑人权的执行情况。除此之外,首要的重点是实现最高实用程序。因为行动和机构都由效用总和来评判。

Do you think that a theory of justice should focus on the actual behavior of individuals or on ideal institutions. Explain your response with Reference to the principles of justice required in both the case of: a) tax policy and b) murder for self-defense.'

Firstly, I will give an overview of the Theories of justice proposed by Bentham, Rawls and Sen, along with Sen's critique of Bentham and Rawls and I also look at the shortcomings of Sen's approach. Thereafter, I will use the capability framework of Sen to explain Tax policy and murder in self-defense.

社会公平理论-Theories of Social Justice

There are a number of theories regarding social justice and distributions of benefits, rights and opportunities. However, to understand them fully, we need to look at their foundation, advantages and applicability.

Jeremy Bentham's theory of Utilitarianism believed in fulfilling the utility of a person. By this he means, maximum happiness for the majority of the people. So, this theory is only concerned with the happiness of an individual and considers it as the goal, and other things are used to achieve happiness. Thus the society, government and laws are as good as the utility they produce. Mills suggests that if our actions produce pleasure then they are valid otherwise they are incorrect. One of the major shortcomings of this concept is that it does not take into account the implementation of human rights. Apart from this the significant focus is on attainment of highest utility. Due to it, actions or institutions are judged by the aggregate of the utilities produced. Consequently, inequality or poverty in a community is seen as sum total loss of utilities in comparison to the utilities which could have been created, due to which the citizens find themselves in a less pleasurable state, taken as an aggregate, than they might have been.

Sen supports this theory to the extent that it considers the outcomes of social organization when critiquing them, and also looks after the comfort of each person when critiquing social frame up. In addition, he says the theory is limited by its myopic approach, of taking utility as the sole aim in deciding the well-being of the society. As utility is not enough to help us understand destitution, and also does take into account into rights and entitlements, which are necessary to people to live the life they envision and find their existence meaningful. Sen further points out that this theory based on utility does not take in account of unfairness in the distribution of pleasure. As the emphasis is on aggregate utility, the allotment of this utility to individuals is excluded. Lastly, Sen feels that the sole focus on the psychological trait of people's happiness, is a very limited approach to fair justice, by论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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