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教育中的社会学问题

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2016-02-22编辑:kittytwin点击率:3511

论文字数:2910论文编号:org201602190943087261语种:英语论文 English地区:西班牙价格:免费论文

关键词:educational opportunities残疾学生教师责任

摘要:随着国家法律的完善,在主流学校中包容残疾学生已经越来越受到关注,教学环境会对学生造成很大的影响。这样的教育方式需要得到教师的大力支持才能推行,本文讲述了为残疾学生提供平等教育的重要性和必要性,以及国家、政府和教师所要承担的责任。

从古至今,教师处理了许多至今仍未解决的问题。这些重要的问题包括:知识的本质,教育,学校教育,教学和学习。他们处理这些问题以获得参与学校教育的个人或群体权利。教育机会往往会被性别、种族和社会经济阶层的偏见所限制。

不同的学习方式

多年以来,残疾儿童的特殊需求被社会忽略,他们被排除到学校之外。今天联邦法律和法院规定为了保证公平教育,他们的特殊需求必须被考虑(Sadker, Sadker & Zittleman, 2008)。最突出的是残疾人教育法(IDEA),这就要求残疾儿童教育项目尽可能接近主流程序,从而使其纳入其中。这样的纳入被指出会对课堂环境造成积极的影响,这对教师提出了挑战,因此必须得到教师的支持。

Throughout history, teachers have dealt with many questions that remain unsolved today. These important queries address the nature of knowledge, Education, schooling, teaching and learning. They deal with such issues as personal and group rights to participate in schooling, and how educational opportunities were often limited by gender, race, and socioeconomic class biases.

不同的学习方式——Different Ways of Learning


For many years, the special needs of children with disabilities have been neglected in the society and have been excluded from schools. Today, Federal laws and courts of law have required that their special needs be considered to ensure an adequate education (Sadker, Sadker & Zittleman, 2008). Most prominent is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) which requires that children with disabilities education programs be as close as possible to the mainstream programs thus inclusion. Whereas inclusion has been noted to have a positive impact on the classroom environment, it is challenging for the teacher and thus more support for the teacher is necessary.

Inclusion poses various challenges to the teacher in the classroom. First, majority of teachers are not trained to handle the needs of special students and are usually ill-prepared resulting to frustration. A study carried out by Daane and Berne-Smith (2000) report that teachers feel 'a|ill equipped, fear and frustrateda|' in inclusion. Second, as reported by Daane and Berne-Smith (2000) specialist items of equipment and the general school design does not always allow disabled access. Some disabled students will require special facilities which the ordinary schools do not normally provide or special facilities that mainstream schools did not incorporate in their design. Such tools as wheel chair access, Braille, and other special equipments may not be available for the students. Finally, teachers do not usually get the necessary support from the school administrators, the parents, and the society in general (Daane & Berne-Smith, 2000).

Whereas inclusion has received both support and criticism, one thing remains clear, that it has posed a special challenge for the teacher in the classroom. The lack of adequate training and necessary resources leaves the teacher ill-prepared to cope with the needs of the special children. It is important that necessary support is accorded to the teacher in terms of adequate resources and training to enable meet the special child in order for inclusion to achieve its full objectives. First, offering this support would create an enabling environment to enable the teacher to impart knowledge more effectively. Second this benefit extends to the students including the disabled as they will gain more knowledge. Finally, this would result to motivated teachers and better improved teacher retention, savings in recruitment and training and improved quality in education.

学生的多样性——Student Diversity

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