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瑞典硕士论文代写-从洋葱到海洋,背论语变化中的民族文化研究-From “Onion” to “Ocean”-Paradox and Change in National Cultures

论文作者:留学生论文网论文属性:硕士毕业论文 dissertation登出时间:2011-07-25编辑:anterran点击率:6100

论文字数:9412论文编号:org201107251616474420语种:英语论文 English地区:瑞典价格:$ 44



Tony Fang is assistant professor of international business at Stockholm University,
SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden (tel.: +46 8 163063; fax: +46 8 674 74 40; e-mail:
tony.fang@fek.su.se). The author thanks Urapa Joy Watanachote (Thailand), Joost
Stel (Netherlands), George Kakhadze (Georgia), Satu Penttinen (Finland), and Gabrielde Mello Pratellesi (Brazil) for personal communications about their respectivecountries discussed in this paper. The author also thanks Dr. Anton Kriz and manyothers, including the editor of ISMO and this issue’s guest editors, for their valuablecomments on an earlier version of this paper.
Int. Studies of Mgt. & Org., vol. 35, no. 4, Winter 2005–6, pp. 71–90.
© 2006 M.E. Sharpe, Inc. All rights reserved.
ISSN 0020–8825 / 2006 $9.50 + 0.00.
From “Onion” to “Ocean”
Paradox and Change in National Cultures
Abstract: Differing from the dominant bipolar paradigm of analyzing nationalcultures, this paper champions a dialectical approach that sees each national cultureas having a life of its own full of dynamics and paradoxes. The paper calls forshifting our mindset from the Cold War “onion” way of analyzing culture to a new“ocean” way of understanding culture to capture the dynamics of national culturesand international cross-cultural management in the age of globalization.
For decades, the field of international cross-cultural management has beendominated by a functionalist bipolar or dimensional paradigm of analyzingnational cultures (e.g., Hofstede 1980, 1991, 2001; House et al. 2004; Trompenaars1994). Two profound perspectives have prevailed in this paradigm. First,national cultures are divided into individualist orcollectivist, feminine ormasculine, and so forth. As Hofstede stated: “The vast majority of people in
our world live in societies in which the interest of the group prevails over theinterest of the individual. I will call these societies collectivist. . . . A minorityof people in our world live in societies in which the interests of the individualprevail over the interests of the group, societies which I will call individualist”(1991, 50). Second, the paradigm represents a static and deterministic visionof culture. As Hofstede put it: “Cultures, especially national cultures, are
extremely stable over time . . . Differences between national cultures at theend of the last century were already recognizable in the years 1900, 1800, and1700, if not earlier. There is no reason they should not remain recognizable
until at least 2100” (2001, 34–36).
The bipolar paradigm rests on a number of assumptions: Complexity istackled through simplification; nationality or nation-state forms the basic unitof analysis; the focus is on cultural differences; values determine behavior,
not vice versa; values are stable over time; and national cultures are difficultto change. The strength of this paradigmlies in its clarity and consistency inidentifying cultural dimensions and juxtaposing one culture against anotheralong these dimensions to facilitate cross-cultural comparisons.
Though useful to some extent (e.g., for testing hypotheses and for giving“the first best guess” about certain characteristics of national cultures),this dominant paradigm looks increasingly at odds with today’s global
cross-cultural management environment. On the practical side, managersare increasingly frustrated by cultu论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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