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dissertation范文:美国法律专业毕业论文

论文作者:meisishow论文属性:硕士毕业论文 dissertation登出时间:2014-09-04编辑:meisishow点击率:8099

论文字数:7897论文编号:org201409021153139028语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:立法权美国澳大利亚American PrecidentAustralian Legislation

摘要:本文的目的是分析美国反垄断原则将在多大程度上影响澳大利亚反垄断的应用程序(或竞争法),比如像高尔夫的规则。今天,高尔夫球的两个监管机构,美国高尔夫球协会(件)和圣安德鲁斯皇家古代高尔夫俱乐部(不会)建立高尔夫设备的技术规格。

在澳大利亚,通过监管机构颁布的规则也通过了澳大利亚高尔夫协会,在代表团圣安德鲁斯皇家古代高尔夫俱乐部颁布实施。相关高尔夫设备的问题,该规则明确提出监管不当的处理方法,并且排除创新产品进入市场的规则(贸易行为法案1974(单位)——这一规定与1890年《谢尔曼法》(美国))相类似,第二,高尔夫监管者是否存在不公平地行使市场力(贸易行为法案1974(单位)——这部分与§2《谢尔曼法》1890(美国))大部分相似。


本文考察了美国诉讼法案并将它适用于上述竞争法律原则中。美国群众对于它具有特别的意义,假如美国制造商主导的零售市场在澳大利亚高尔夫俱乐部占据大部分。一个结构性框架将要被创建,据此,体育设备监管机构对于其设备限制条款的有效性进行测试。在本篇文章中以高尔夫产品作为背景进行分析,但是它同样适用于任何运动(如果不是全部的话),而这些设备都包含了限制性条款。


In Australia, the rules promulgated by the regulatory bodies are adopted through its national association, Golf Australia, upon a delegation from the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews. The issues specifically raised are whether regulation of golf equipment improperly excludes innovative products from reaching the market place (ss45/4D of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Aus) - with this provision somewhat equivalent to §1 of the Sherman Act 1890 (US)), and second, whether the golf regulators are unfairly exercising market power (s46 Trade Practices Act 1974 (Aus) - this section broadly parallels §2 of the Sherman Act 1890 (US)). With precedential case law emanating from the United States, it is possible, if not probable, that a manufacturer (be they Australian or international) may look to the Australian courts as a medium by which their innovative and ground-breaking product can reach the hands of avid golfers. This article examines the United States litigation and applies it to the above-mentioned competition law principles. It has particular relevance to a United States audience given that American manufacturers dominate the retail market for golf clubs in Australia. A framework will be presented against which sporting equipment regulators can test the validity of their rules regarding equipment restrictions. Whilst golf will be the background for this critique, the analysis is equally relevant for any sport (if not all), which contain such limitations.



There is no doubting the importance of sport to the human psyche. From an Australian perspective it is an inherent part of the Australian persona, developed as part of our culture. Whether it is our wealth, weather, availability of land or some other reason, many Australians participate in any number of outdoor and indoor recreational pursuits that come within the broad rubric of sports. As one of the most prominent activities, golf occupies a specific niche in the Australian community. With approximately 1.139ml (or 8% of the population) playing, the related employment of 20,000 people, club revenues of $1.1bn, 30ml rounds played annually, at least 20 male players on the United States Professional Tour and the number nine ranked female player in the world (Karrie Webb), Australia is rightfully positioned as the worlds number two golfing nation, behind only the United States of America.



However, for every golfer frustrated with a short game that begins off the tee, a putter that uncomfortably yips at impact, or a ball that doesn't respect the modern mantra of mental visualisation, a lingering question remains, to what extent do the technology restrictions imposed by the regulators of golf actually protect the fundamental values that lie behind the game? Perhaps more specifically, do the contemporary developments such as the conformance test for the ‘spring-like' effect off clubheads, or the limitations on the distance that a ball论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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