Resistance to change is a crucial element of change management. According to Stick land, resistance is a continuous phenomenon for change agents and Randall views resistance as an initial hurdle when bringing in most change programs. Resistance in organizations is commonly referred to and viewed as an important component in any of the change management decisions (Hughes, 2006).
Virtually any type of organizational change involves role transitions of some type. In light of role transitions, it is almost natural for employees to resist major changes in the workplace environment. During the change process tough decisions have to be made and communicated. New possibilities and new priorities are intimidating to employees - the ones who most often have to live with the effects of these decisions. The simple announcement of changes in an organization can bring forth feelings of fear, insecurity and fear - leading to stress (Richardson, 2002).
RESISTANCE DEFINED 阻力的定义
Zaltman & Duncan define resistance as "any conduct that serves to maintain the status quo in the face of pressure to alter the status quo". In the view of Folger & Skarlicki resistance is defined as "employee behavior that seeks to challenge, disrupt, or invert prevailing assumptions, discourses, and power relations" (Bolognese, 2008).
FOUR MAJOR VIEWPOINTS REGARDING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE
First The Psychological Model which regards individual behavior as the force behind resisting change.
Second The Systems Model states that people do not resist change but they fear of losing something very important to them.
Third The Institutional Model suggests that resistance becomes a part of all the critical functions in the organization such as the organization hierarchy, the way decisions are made and the way resources are allocated among the organization members.
Fourth The Organizational culture approach states that causes of resistance are due to the culture of the organization i-e the values, beliefs and assumptions of employees (Hughes, 2006).
King and Anderson explained resistance in terms of four viewpoints:
An Unavoidable Behavioral Response (Hughes, 2006).
A Politically Motivated Insurrection and Class Struggle (Hughes, 2006).
A Constructive Counterbalance (Hughes, 2006).
Cognitive and Cultural Restructuring (Hughes, 2006).
ACTIVITY OF RESISTANCE 阻力的活动性
There are two forms of resistance i-e active and passive (Straker, 2009).
In Active Resistance individuals openly reject the change initiatives. Here people take specific action to resist the change. It may be overt, with such as public statements, and it may be covert, such as mobilizing others to create an underground resistance movement (Straker, 2009).
In Passive Resistance individuals indirectly exhibit behaviors that are against the change. Here people do not take specific actions. At meetings, they will not participate and may appear to agree with the change. They mainly refuse to work in association with the change. For example, they may agree and then do nothing to fulfill their commitments (Straker, 2009).
COLLECTIVISM OF RESISTANCE 集体主义的阻力
Resistance can happen both on an individual basis or people may group together and exhibit resistance (Straker, 2009).
Individually, people may oppose change, although this is generally limited to the degree of their personal ability and authority. Individuals having less influence may depict slow refusals and hidden action. Those having more power may react to change initiative by open challenge and criticism (Straker, 2009).
When people resist change on a collective basis, then their words and actions can pose a major danger to the change, even though they have less influence individua