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经济学essay写作范文:自然资源诅咒与经济发展

论文编号:lw201610061638533846 所属栏目:essay写作 发布日期:2018年06月12日 论文作者:无忧论文网
资源丰富的国家往往比他们的贫穷的邻国更糟糕,而不是受益于他们巨大的自然财富,这一点已经不令人惊讶了。这种现象被称为“自然资源诅咒”,它与资源丰富的国家遇到的,导致他们缓慢的经济发展和政治,社会的失败。但是,这并不完全适用于每一种情况下。当我们看看像博茨瓦纳、智利和挪威这样的国家,这些国家也有丰富的自然资源,并在它的帮助下,表现出令人印象深刻的成就。因此,这里的问题是,无论是自然资源是诅咒还是祝福。对于一些人是的,一些没有。主要的一点是国家的问题,以及它是如何处理它的财富。并回答将通过经济和政治理论之间的联系。
有许多类型的诅咒在经济上以及政治上的意义,这已被深入研究,由领先的经济学家,政治和社会科学家。从自然财富带来的各种各样的缺点,在这里我会提到主要的四,这可能与我的案例研究更多。这些都是荷兰的疾病,商品价格的波动,政治腐败和民主的侵蚀。前两个纯粹关注经济学,最后两个更与政治条件有关。

It is already not surprise that resource rich countries often do worse than their poorer neighbors instead of benefiting their huge natural wealth. This phenomenon is so called natural resource curse, which is encountered with resource rich countries, leading them to the slow economic development and political, social failure. But, this is not entirely applicable in every case. When we look at the countries like Norway, Chile and Botswana, those are also rich in the natural resource and showing the quiet impressive achievement with the help of it. So question here is that whether natural resource is curse or blessing. For some yes, for some no. The main point is the matter of the country and how it is dealing with its wealth. And answer would be given by connection between economic and political theory.

There are many types of the curse in economic as well as political sense, which have been studied intensively by leading economist, political and social scientists. From those various disadvantages resulting from natural wealth, here I would mention main four, which may relate more with my case studies. Those are Dutch disease, Volatility in commodity prices, Political corruption and Erosion of democracy. First two are purely concerned with economics and last two are more related with political conditions, moreover where are my main interest in.

It becomes already clear for us that the natural resource wealth is leading to the bad economic performance in some countries. But what should we blame for that unsatisfied result: the huge natural resource or the country (people), who are incapable of spending it in the right way. Here, by people I mean the state, the government of the country and its institutional quality. When the state is transparency and accountability and checks and balance system work in the government, there is no such phenomenon, named "Resource curse". However, once it is occurred in the country, there are also numbers of ways to cure it such as economic policy change, political and social change, distribution of the natural resource curse to the citizen, privatization of the natural resource sector, international level help.

There are two main motivations for me to write this paper: academic as well as personnel. I am from the country, which has one of the fastest growing economies in the world, ranking at 5th in 2012 [1] . All of this has been driven by mining (coal, copper, uranium, gold, rare earths, and the like). Much of its natural resource wealth has come from a long-standing Russian-Mongolian joint venture, Erdenet, but has recently been joined by two giant newcomers, the Oyu Tolgoi (OT) and Tavan Tolgoi (TT) mines in the Gobi desert. Sadly, before the discovery, we didn't have very mature strong democracy and qualified institutions to avoid the curse as Norway did. It has already started to experience problem of corruption and other ills derived from the resource curse. In the end of the paper, I would write about the possible cure for resource curse in case of Mongolia, since it had already overcome its avoiding stage.

Natural resource curse v/s economic development 自然资源诅咒与经济发展
The view, that natural resource exports were at serious disadvantage, was the minority in economics until the late 1980s. Later literature started to suggest that natural resource abundance might be curse than blessing. From Figure1, we can see that there is negative relation between the GDP growth and natural resource export level. For example, the countries like Hong Kong, South Korea are less exporting their natural resources and at the