论文编号:lw201611121829221951 所属栏目:essay写作 发布日期:2018年03月13日 论文作者:无忧论文网
制造业和服务业之间的混乱,往往都是因为有时他们相互密切配合工作,并不是我们所谓的制造业涉及从手工或使用机器用原料生产他们的产品的所有公司。教授蒂姆 · 登说"这通常以重复的方式在工厂生产线上完成",他是朗伯德街研究的首席经济学家 。


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Indeed there are several opinion concerning the subjects, some thinks the manufacturing sector in UK is dead and should be abandon, because of numerous failure in the past; while some other feels the contrary showing as evidence the growth of the sector and the opportunities it can provide for the country.
United Kingdom manufacturing environment

The United Kingdom manufacturing sector has acquired a bad image, people think is dead due to sign of decline of the past years. Indeed it suffers from under-investments during several years. You can see on the graphs below first the under-investment which shows its decrease from 22% in 1992 to 17% in 2000, and then the percentage of investment according to each sectors where it is possible to see that the major part of investment goes to the pharmaceutical sector, then electrical and optical and aerospace decreasingly until mechanical equipment:

(CBI, Chris Cassley, October 2010,

CBI Manufacturing, Manufacturing in the UK, p3).

Moreover, because of its strong pound, the United Kingdom lost a lot of companies which move to other countries like Eastern Europe or Asia where the work force cost much less. Besides, the bad image of UK manufacturing deter qualified persons to come there, which start to create a lack of skills.

Also due to the high pound, the cost raised and so fears appear about the possible growth of the inflation (BBC news, 1st February 2011, UK manufacturing growth at fastest since records began).
Innovation is one of the serious issue facing the country, indeed UK is the European country which use the less innovative US patent. And in our actual society the competitive advantage came from the capacity to develop innovative products, as Michael E Porter and Christian H M Ketels say 'competitive advantage is gained through "the ability to produce innovative products and services at the global technology frontier using the most advanced methods"' (Institute of Strategy and Competitiveness, Harvard Business School, May 2003, UK Competitiveness: moving to the next stage).

The competitive market is changing, first with the new technologies which change the way of making product, it can improve the productivity by faster machinery, and the problem is that such technologies are not always available to all countries, some are more advanced than others, like for example in Asian countries which are now a strong competitor. Moreover these technologies can also improve the supply chain nowadays we can order raw materials via the Internet, and transportation is also easier so the delocalization of companies is no longer such a threat. That's why Asian and Eastern Europe country increase the competitiveness of the market and add new pressure.

Nevertheless, the UK manufacturing sector show signs of rebirth. Indeed, with 15 % of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) of the United Kingdom, ,it generates 130billions a year and with 2.6million employees; manufacturing seems to be on track. Moreover, as it is showed on the graph below, the exportation rate in good, it never been less than 46% (in 2009 according to the CBI) and it will increase again with 55% of exportation (CBI quoting By Prospects, Tammy Goldfeld, October 2009,Manufacturing overview).

(CBI, Chris Cassley, October 2010, CBI Manufacturing, Manufacturing in the UK, p2).

That's why economically and socially speaking, the falling of UK manufacturing would be a disaster, indeed as it a large part of the GDP the standard of living would fall dramatically and the economy would suffer, indeed 'the conventional feeling about G.D.P. is that the more it grows, the better a country and its citizens are doing' (The New York Times, Jon Gertner, 13th May 2010, The rise and fall of GDP). Moreover the unemploymen