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沙特阿拉伯位的缺水问题

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2016-04-06编辑:anne点击率:4029

论文字数:3021论文编号:org201604032024123191语种:英语论文 English地区:乌克兰价格:免费论文

关键词:沙特阿拉伯缺水环境

摘要:这份报告将比较成本,接受社会和环境影响方面的海水淡化与水再利用的可行性,从而探索最合适的方法来处理水在沙特阿拉伯的稀缺性。

1. Introduction介绍


新鲜的水是人类生活,农业灌溉和经济发展(布鲁克斯,2007年)不可或缺的资源。然而,由于人口的快速增长和有限的储备,增加地区面临淡水短缺严重(威廉姆森,2010)。沙特是最干旱的国家在世界上(CIA,2011)中的一个。根据世界银行(2011年),世界平均耗新水近7000m3/年/人,而在沙特阿拉伯的人均水资源低于1200m3/年/人。为了满足对水的需求,沙特阿拉伯目前通过化石地下水深钻(UNESCO,2009)提供淡水。然而,社会越来越认识到,这些水资源是不可再生的,并且容易由过度钻孔和水井被降低。因此,沙特需要找到替代性和可持续的方法来解决这些问题。由于周围有沙特丰富的海水,大型海水淡化可能是缺水的理想解决方案。然而,昂贵的成本和对环境的不利影响可能会限制这种方法的规模和可持续性。由于廉价的成本和较小的环境损害,废水再利用被视为另一个可能的解决方案。但是,它似乎有一个低的社会接受。

Fresh water is an indispensable resource for human livelihood, agricultural irrigation and economic development (Brooks, 2007). However, due to the rapid population growth and the limited reserves, increasing regions have faced serious scarcity of fresh water (Williamson, 2010). Saudi Arabia is one of the driest countries in the world (CIA, 2011). According to World Bank (2011), the world average fresh water consumption is nearly 7000m3/year/person, while the water resource per capita in Saudi Arabia is less than 1200m3/year/person. In order to satisfy the demand for water, Saudi Arabia currently supplies fresh water via deep drilling of fossil groundwater (UNESCO, 2009). Nevertheless, society increasingly recognises that those water resources are non-renewable and are liable to be reduced by the overexploited boreholes and wells. Thus Saudi Arabia needs to find alternative and sustainable methods to solve these issues. Since there is abundant sea water around Saudi Arabia, large-scale desalination could be the ideal solution to water scarcity. However, the expensive cost and the detrimental influence on the environment might limit the scale and sustainability of this method. Due to the cheap cost and the minor environmental damage, wastewater reuse is regarded as another potential solution. However, it seems to have a low social acceptance.

Therefore, this report will compare the feasibility of desalination and water reuse in terms of cost, social acceptance and environmental impacts, thereby exploring the most suitable method to deal with the scarcity of water in Saudi Arabia.

2. Background背景


Saudi Arabia is located in the Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea (CIA, 2011). It is famous for the abundant reserves of oil and gas. However, the fresh water resources in Saudi Arabia are very limited. According to World Bank (2011), there is no one river and lake with perennial water throughout this country. Furthermore, due to the influence of the subtropical climate, the annual precipitation is only about 100 mm and the climate is hot and dry (ibid.). Additionally, rapid population growth has caused higher increase of demand for water (Abderrahman, 2000). Shortages of water have constrained the development of agriculture and economy (Williamson, 2010).
Since the underground water is estimated to be able to supply for 320 years, the underground water is still the principal source of water at present (UNESCO, 2009: 100). However, with the increasing awareness of defects of this method, the focus of the future development of water provision has shifted to other sustainable water technologies. In order to deal with fresh water shortages, desalination has received enormous investments. According to Abu-Arabi (2007), in 2004 the number of desalination industries reached 30 and they can supply 1.1 billion cubic metres of fresh water per year. 
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