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经济师职称论文(中英文对比):自由贸易中的绿色壁垒-The green barrier to free trade

论文编号:lw201109291616169740 所属栏目:经济师论文 发布日期:2018年01月15日 论文作者:无忧论文网

自由贸易中的绿色壁垒
 在完全自由化的承诺在其最新一轮会议的商业谈判委员会,世界贸易组织,乐观地认为,谈判的框架将在3月31日最后期限为制定数字指标,公式和其他方式,哪些国家可以通过新的全面谈判回合贸易几乎已经消失。这一目标是重要的原因有两个。
第一,它现在越来越清楚,那更是在报道比乌拉圭回合谈判,达成协议,建立一个地区的农业必然是极为困难的证明。 在农业谈判进展的关键是说服不相信一个新的`多哈回合谈判中对贸易是有益的,可行的。第二,多哈宣言作出承诺的农业谈判的一部分单从`要完成2005年1月1日。也就是说,在采取'全有或没有什么计划,国家已经达成,并约束,是协议中的所有领域中的谈判将要开展的新一轮谈判。这意味着,如果协议不能进行农业合作方面,将不会有政权更替的多边贸易行业管理,服务或相关的领域,外国采购和公共投资在没有取得任何进展的新领域,如竞争政策,所有其中至为重要,发达国家经济议程的。点上的因素使这次农业的坚持是多方面的。由于在最后一轮,有一点是一致的贸易体制中的农业发达国家的全球自己在适当的形状。农产品出口有很大的差异在议程中的美国,凯恩斯集团和欧盟国家内部的发展。当富人和强大的反对,一个全球性的共识是不容易找到。但这还不是全部。即使协议被缝了贫富之间的国家,通过演习,如布莱尔大厦协议,得到了世界各地的去沿着这将是更加困难的时间。这是因为协议开始对农业(农业协定)的成果)在农产品贸易领域实施以来,乌拉圭回合(乌拉圭回合的状况远远没有达到人们的期望。乌拉圭回合的谈判过程中,政权主张乌拉圭回合的承诺,全球生产了调整,将增加世界农产品贸易的价值,以及在发展贸易的增加等国分享

The green barrier to free trade
C. P. Chandrasekhar
Jayati Ghosh

As the March 31 deadline for completing the "modalities" stage of the proposed new round of negotiations on global agricultural trade nears, hopes of an agreement are increasingly waning. In this edition of Macro scan, C. P. Chandrasekhar and Jayati Ghosh examine the factors and the players constraining the realization of such an agreement.
AT THE END of the latest round of meetings of the agricultural negotiations committee of the WTO, the optimism that negotiators would meet the March 31 deadline for working out numerical targets, formulas and other "modalities" through which countries can frame their liberalization commitments in a new full-fledged round of trade negotiations has almost disappeared. That target was important for two reasons.
First, it is now becoming clear, that even more than was true during the Uruguay Round, forging an agreement in the agricultural area is bound to prove extremely difficult. Progress in the agricultural negotiations was the key to persuading the unconvinced that a new `Doha Round' of trade negotiations is useful and feasible.
Second, the Doha declaration made agricultural negotiations one part of a `single undertaking' to be completed by January 1, 2005. That is, in a take `all-or-nothing' scheme, countries had to arrive at, and be bound by, agreements in all areas in which negotiations were to be initiated in the new round. This means that if agreement is not worked out with regard to agriculture, there would be no change in the multilateral trade regime governing industry, services or related areas and no progress in new areas, such as competition policy, foreign investment and public procurement, all of which are crucial to the economic agenda of the developed countries.
The factors making agriculture the sticking point on this occasion are numerous. As in the last Round, there is little agreement among the developed countries themselves on the appropriate shape of the global agricultural trade regime.
There are substantial differences in the agenda of the US, the EU and the developed countries within the Cairns group of agricultural exporters. When the rich and the powerful disagree, a global consensus is not easy to come by.
But that is not all. Even if an agreement is stitched up between the rich nations, through maneuvers such as the Blair House accord, getting the rest of the world to go along would be more difficult this time.