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汉字“左”和“右”的英语隐喻研究 [3]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2017-12-16编辑:lgg点击率:3265

论文字数:38475论文编号:org201712092111444246语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:$ 66

关键词:英语毕业论文认知语义隐喻

摘要:本文是英语毕业论文,本文作者发现在《现代汉语词典》,《左传》,《礼记》中,空间方位词左和右在不同历史时期,有着不同的文化含义,其中尊卑差异尤为突出。

”,there are some meanings like hobby, accrual, benefit and phrases like “have aninterest in” and “be interested in”. However, Mark Aronoff & Kirsten Fudeman (2011)deem that a word is generally involved with diverse forms of the same one which takeplace when it is syntactically situated into different contexts. They claim that differentscholars give various definitions of what a word is but each of these definitions is notcompletely reasonable. In their point of view, calling words the smallest unit oflanguage comes across problems. Free forms are words with ability to stand alone.Nevertheless, poets sometimes utilize prefixes or suffixes like 'im' or 'ly' to rhymewith words ahead. These affixes are not real words but they can still stand alonewhich to a certain extent contradicts Bloomfield's definition. Besides, Patrick Hanks(1971) says that lexicology is regarded as a part of linguistics related to the lexiconespecially semantic meanings and uses”. John T. Jensen (1990) also mentions theterm 'lexeme' and supplements distinctly that word is a nonfigurative entity moreconnected with a certain structure of one language other than the basic element of it.And Ingo Plag (2002) has made an overall summary specifically showing that wordsare syntactic atoms and indivisible units and have one main stress and a part of speechspecification. Apparently, Ingo starts to define words from phonological,morphological, syntactic and semantic perspectives and these four properties makewhat a real word is easily accepted by people.
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2.2 Previous Study on Spatial Words
What has been mentioned above is that western scholars have studied wordsthrough an extremely broad view to generalize the common features of languages.Studying spatial words or prepositions in English can be regarded as to use a narrowview to explore words.It is widely believed that spatial words in English are the core part ofprepositions and adverbs which have already appeared since the period of old English(Palmer, 1936). He also hypothesizes that prepositions are probably originated fromparticles with the property of adverbs and they are naturally meaningful units withsemantic connotations, that is, free morphemes to convey what is involved withdirections or movements. Some linguists rebut that there are several prepositions inmodern English such as 'like', 'of', 'for', 'but', which definitely have nothing to dowith spatial movements or directions. However, she backlashes that 'of', 'for', 'butand 'like' actually can denote spatial movements through diachronic perspective.'Of' and 'for' have original forms which are 'ap' in Indo-European way and 'fora'in Germanic way respectively. 'Ap' means spatial movement and 'fora' signifiesbeing preceding timely and spatially. The initial meaning of 'but' is outside, thephrase 'but and hen' representing outside and in. As for 'like', its original meaning'comparing' shows that making comparison between items should have these itemsclose to each other virtually or mentally. All in all, prepositions are more or lessconcerned with concepts of space.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework..........18
3.1 Cognitive Semantics ............18
3.2 Conceptual Metaphor...........19
3.2.1 Features of Conceptual Metaphor.........20
3.2.2 Classifications of Conceptual Metaphor........21
3.3 Prototype Theory ........23
3.4 Summary ............25
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