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文化冲击和糟糕调整

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2016-04-27编辑:zhaotianyun点击率:2865

论文字数:2957论文编号:org201604251343356242语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:Culture Shock电信行业跨文化领域

摘要:摘要:本文主要讲述了文化冲击的定义和当前商业行业背景下国际市场的壮大。

文化冲击和糟糕的调整

Culture Shock And Poor Adjustment 


在商业行业扩大国际业务的重要性日益增长。一个行业在国际市场不断扩大它的存在是电信行业。随着全球电信行业的发展,电信在世界经济中发挥着越来越重要的作用。由于增加了新的市场准入和大量的全球电信行业内并购,同时更多的经理和员工正成为外派国外工作和生活的对象。因此,极其重要的教育管理者或员工在跨文化意识。非常重要的一个方面的问题是跨文化领域的“文化冲击”。提出了许多理论来解释什么是文化冲击。虽然文献涵盖了各种各样的理论,本文将专注于一些反复出现在文献回顾主要的文化冲击模型。

文化冲击的定义

“文化冲击”这个词在1960年第一次被世界知名人类学家Kalervo奥伯格引入。他使用“文化冲击”这个词来描述不知道在新文化中做些什么所引起的焦虑。奥伯格(1960)(引用2000年Dharm and Richard·p.2)定义文化“为职业病的人突然被国外运输”并认为文化冲击是“沉淀的焦虑,导致失去所有我们熟悉的符号和象征的社会交往”换句话说,文化冲击是指个体文化迁移的情况,他/她从熟悉的环境到一个陌生的环境中得到了新的体验,并引起了痛苦和不适或孤独的感觉。奥伯格定义文化冲击是由许多著名的学者支持。例如,霍夫斯泰德(1999)(2003年佼佼者索尼娅Manz引用,第19页)也定义了文化冲击的“压力转移后的痛苦一个人去一个陌生的文化环境。

In the business industry the importance of expanding the business internationally is progressively growing. One industry which is constantly expanding its presence in international market is telecommunication industry. Telecommunication plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and as the global telecommunication industry. Due to increasing new market access and large number of global mergers and acquisitions within telecommunication industry larger number of managers and employees are becoming an expatriate working and living abroad. Therefore it is extremely vital to educate managers or employees in intercultural awareness. One of the very important aspects in the field of intercultural is the issue of 'Culture Shock'. Many theories have been proposed to explain what Culture Shock is. Although the literature covers a wide variety of such theories, this review will focus on few major culture shock models which emerge repeatedly throughout the literature reviewed.

文化冲击的定义——Definition of 'Culture Shock'

The word 'Culture Shock' was first introduced by world-renowned anthropologist Kalervo Oberg in 1960.He used the word culture shock to describe the anxiety resulting from not knowing what to do in new culture. Oberg (1960) as (cited in Dharm and Richard 2000, p. 2) Defined culture 'as occupational disease of people who have suddenly been transported abroad' and suggested that culture shock is 'precipitated by the anxiety that result from losing all our familiar signs and symbol of social intercourse' In other words the term culture shock refers to the situation where an individual migrates from a culture to which he/she is familiar with to an unfamiliar one resulting in new experiences and causing distress and discomfort or sense of loneliness. Oberg definition on culture shock was supported by many renowned scholars. For example, Hofstede (1999) as (cited in Sonja Manz 2003,p.2) has also defined culture shock as a 'stress of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar cultural environment . Furthermore, Alder (1975) as (cited in Yun and Qynh Le, 2012, p. 2). Also agreed with Oberg and Hosted definition and state that culture shock is a set of emotional reactions which occurred when an individual leave its own culture and move completely into a new culture. However, Marx contradicts with Oberg, Adler and Hofstede view on culture and offers far more interesting and promising view on Culture. Her view on culture shock is more interesting because she views culture shock as a positive and learning experience. Marx view on culture shock was supported by Hawes and Kealey (1981) study (Cited in Marx 1999, p6) which was论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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