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量子密码通信分析

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:学术文章 Scholarship Essay登出时间:2016-04-30编辑:lily点击率:3701

论文字数:3760论文编号:org201604261519363578语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:量子密码学信息安全量子密钥

摘要:本文专注于量子密钥分配和位承诺协议,特别讨论它们的安全性,首先回顾了经典密码学的相关内容,随后对量子密码学进行介绍,并说明其应用领域及存在的问题,最后得出结论并对前景进行展望。

量子密码通信分析

密码学是一门防止未经授权访问个人信息的科学,它确保信息的完整性并对数据来源进行验证,同时也完成其他相关任务。在本调查文本中,我们将专注于量子密钥分配和位承诺协议,特别讨论它们的安全性。在讲量子密码学之前,我们先来概览一下经典的密码学,了解一下它目前面临的挑战和发展历史。

假设有两个对象,爱丽丝和鲍勃,他们希望通过一个不安全的通信通道来传递信息,并保证信息不被窃听。他们采用一种算法,在本文中我们称其为文件加密算法,通过某些规则打乱爱丽丝的信息,想要在没有信息密钥的情况下恢复原始信息,从而获取爱丽丝信息的内容,即使可行也是极其不容易的。这种被“打乱”的信息被称为密文。而另一方面,鲍勃(他掌握着密钥)却可以轻易破译爱丽丝的密文,并获得原始明码电文。本文1.1这部分的内容再现了基本的密码制定情境。

Analysis Of Quantum Cryptography Communications Essay
Published: 23, March 2015

Cryptography is the science of keeping private information from unauthorized access, of ensuring data integrity and authentication, and other tasks. In this survey, we will focus on quantum-cryptographic key distribution and bit commitment protocols and we in particular will discuss their security. Before turning to quantum cryptography, let me give a brief review of classical cryptography, its current challenges and its historical development.

Two parties, Alice and Bob, wish to exchange messages via some insecure channel in a way that protects their messages from eavesdropping. An algorithm, which is called a cipher in this context, scrambles Alice's message via some rule such that restoring the original message is hard-if not impossible-without knowledge of the secret key. This “scrambled” message is called the cipher text. On the other hand, Bob (who possesses the secret key) can easily decipher Alice's cipher text and obtains her original plaintext. Fig 1.1 in this section presents this basic cryptographic scenario.

Communication between Alice and Bob, with Eve listening

Alice's random bit                01101001

Alice's random sending basis

Photon polarization Alice sends

Bob's random measuring basis

Photon polarization Bob measures

PUBLIC DISCUSSION OF BASIS

Shared secret key                   0 1   0 1

To check for the presence of eavesdropping Alice and Bob now compare a certain subset of their remaining bit strings. If a third party (usually referred to as Eve, for 'eavesdropper') has gained any information about the photons' polarization, this will have introduced errors in Bobs' measurements. If more than p bits differ they abort the key and try again, possibly with a different quantum channel, as the security of the key cannot be guaranteed. p is chosen so that if the number of bits known to Eve is less than this, privacy amplification can be used to reduce Eve's knowledge of the key to an arbitrarily small amount, by reducing the length of the key.

2、量子密码学历史——2. HISTORY OF QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY
Quantum cryptography was proposed first by Stephen Wiesner, and then at Columbia University in New York, who, in the early 1970s, introduced the concept of quantum conjugate coding. His seminal paper titled 'Conjugate Coding' was rejected by IEEE Information Theory but was eventually published in 1983 in SIGACT News (15:1 pp. 78-88, 1983). In this paper he showed how to store or transmit two messages by encoding them in two “conjugate observables”, such as linear and circular polarization of light, so that either, but not both, of which may be received and decoded. He illustrated his idea with a design of unforgivable bank notes论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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