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论文作者:英语论文论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2014-08-27编辑:yangcheng点击率:8812

论文字数:7249论文编号:org201408252315232024语种:英语论文 English地区:马来西亚价格:免费论文

关键词:原因贸易壁垒贸易谈判非关税壁垒关税壁垒trade barriers

摘要:在过去的三十年,国际商业的运作环境开始受制于全球化力量和日益增加的全球一体化。甚至可以说,全球化已经成为今天经济学的专有名词。因此,为了全球一体化,我们越来越需要减少国与国之间的贸易壁垒。为了支持这一观点,世界贸易组织多哈发展议程(也称为多哈会谈)指出,“非农业市场准入(NAMA)谈判小组的任务是减少或者适当的消除关税,其中包括减少或消除关税高峰及高关税,关税升级,以及非关税壁垒,特别是对发展中国家出口产品的利息。” 因此,非关税措施的经济重要性(NTMs)成为全世界许多国家的主要问题。


在过去的三十年,国际商业的运作环境开始受制于全球化力量和日益增加的全球一体化。甚至可以说,全球化已经成为今天经济学的专有名词。因此,为了全球一体化,我们越来越需要减少国与国之间的贸易壁垒。为了支持这一观点,世界贸易组织多哈发展议程(也称为多哈会谈)指出,“非农业市场准入(NAMA)谈判小组的任务是减少或者适当的消除关税,其中包括减少或消除关税高峰及高关税,关税升级,以及非关税壁垒,特别是对发展中国家出口产品的利息。” 因此,非关税措施的经济重要性(NTMs)成为全世界许多国家的主要问题。


Why trade barriers need to be reduced

Over the last thirty years, the environment in which international business operates has become subject to the forces of globalisation and increasing world integration. One might even say that globalisation is the buzzword of economics today. Consequently, to have the world as one, the need to reduce trade barriers between countries arises. To support this view, the WTO's Doha Development Agenda (also known as the Doha Round) states that “the non-agricultural market access (NAMA) negotiating group’s mandate is to reduce, or as appropriate, eliminate tariffs, including the reduction or elimination of tariff peaks, high tariffs, and tariff escalation, as well as non-tariff barriers, in particular on products of export interest to developing countries.” The economic importance of non-tariff measures (NTMs) has thus, become the main concern of many countries around the world.

Moreovever, with the steady decrease in worldwide tariffs accomplished in the various rounds of multilateral trade negotiations over the past several decades, the attention of both policy-makers and economists has turned to the role played by non-tariff methods of protection. Especially for the purpose of negotiations, it is important that the impacts of these NTMs be quantified. Yet this has proven difficult. Variation across countries in product prices is due to many factors of which NTMS are just one. In addition, there are many types of NTMs namely quotas, non-automatic licensing, bans, prior authorization for protection of human health, local content requirements, among others which defy the development of a simple uniform method to convert the effect of these quantity controls into tariff-equivalents.

However, the World Trade Organisation (WTO) which is an international body with the purpose of promoting free trade by persuading countries to abolish import tariffs and other barriers, has played an important role in the setting up of the non-tariff measures. However, the mushrooming of non-tariff measures globally, may also have adverse effects on the economy of a country and the government has to take appropriate actions to protect trade.

1.0 World Trade Organisation

1.1 What is the WTO?

The WTO is the only global international organisation dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world’s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business, while allowing governments to meet social and environmental objectives. The system’s overriding purpose is to help trade flow as freely as possible which partly means removing obstacles.

1.2 Brief History of the WTO

The World Trade Organisation became operational in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organisations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GAT论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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