Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Present Study
Currently many researchers have realized the role of attention and have mademany studies to explore the role of attention from the aspect of psychology,psycholinguistics and cognitive psycholinguistics. Just as Gass’s and Van Pattern’slearning models pointed out, attention or noticing is a key factor leading to theoccurrence of learning.When it comes to the question whether grammar is taught and how to teach, itis being discussed and researched all the way. With the advent of those methodsfocusing on the communication and considering the language accuracy andproduction skills, scholars become to rethink and concern about the grammar. Theidea of attention theory offers a brand new perspective. To be specific, students notonly achieve language fluency, but enhance their attention to language forms, whenperforming communicative tasks.Current empirical studies basically are conducted to explore the relationship between attention and language learning. Most consider that noticing in input andoutput based on attention theory, especially Schmidt’s noticing hypothesis, inputenhancement and Swain’s comprehensible output hypothesis. Gradually, a series ofresearches focus on this topic and capitalize on the related theories from psychologyand cognitive psycholinguistics. It is not doubt that they shed profound invaluableinsights on language learning and teaching. Although some terms are puzzled andeven overlap, it is possible to identify in the real situation to ensure the validity andrationalization.In view of this, attention theory and enhancement devices arouse my interest,especially the impact on the formal language learning and teaching.
1.2 Purpose of the Present Study
The present circumstance for foreign language learners on language learningand teaching is broadly clear presented in the last section. That is, heated topics ofattention and grammar knowledge. Based on attention theory including Schmidt’snoticing hypothesis, input enhancement and Swain’s output hypothesis, it isconcluded that it is possible to make specific language items more salient by means ofenhancements in input and output, which contributes to boost learners’ attention tothese specific language forms. In addition, there are mixed results of the previousstudies relatedThe present paper is interested in attention in the classroom learning andteaching. It is intended to find and investigate whether these driving-attention devicesare effective based on the attention theory. Meanwhile, other underlying factors that cause learners’ awareness in the process of learning and teaching may be furtherexplored. All these aspects will be beneficial to language learners and teachers.Therefore, the study is carried out in order to explore the role of attention in thesecond language grammar learning and to get certain pedagogical implications.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
In recent years, a majority of scholars and educators gradually notice theeffective role of attention in the field of second language acquisition and develop therelevant theories. Referring to attention, some relevant terms mentioned like detection, alertness,consciousness, intention and noticing are introduced and applied in many fieldstheoretically or empirically, although the distinctions between each other arecontroversial issues all the way.The notion of attention derives from psychology. In psychology, it iswell-accepted that attention is an internal psychological state, centrally aiming to aspecific object. Psychologists like James give muc