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分析英语和汉语被动表达对英语教学的影响

论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:职称论文 Scholarship Papers登出时间:2010-05-31编辑:lisa点击率:1959

论文字数:3000论文编号:org201005310940422209语种:中文论文 Chinese地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:英语汉语被动表达比较内在联系

摘要:英语和汉语均存在被动表达 ,但文中的使用频次和表达方式等诸多方面却存在不同。对它们的不同进行了较为详尽的阐述 ,同时也指出了它们之间的内在联系 ,其分析对英语教学和学习将会有一定帮助。
    一、 英语主动式
    讲英语的人比拟喜爱用主动式 ,正在某些散体中 ,运用主动句简直成了一种抒发习气 ,S. Baker指出 , “Our massed ,scienti fic and Bureaucratic s ociety is s o addicted to the PassiveVoice that y ou must constantly alert y oursel f against its drowsy ,im2pers onal pomp.” 主动句促进了物称偏偏向 ,物称偏偏向也助长了主动句。毫无疑难 ,英语中主动句的运用大大超越华语。英语主动句由于能够防止指出施事人 ,从而能够用于示意比拟主观的姿态。然而主动抒发也要遭到一些制约。
    (一)施事制约
    因言语条件显然 ,施事者无须说出或者许基本就没有知道。(1)Jack fought Michael and Jack was beaten (by Michael) .(2) The di fficulty can be av oided in many ways (by y ou , us ,them or him) .    (二)句合议制约     英语重形合 ,重视句法构造和抒发方式。当自动式没有便抒发时 ,出于遣词用句的需求常常用主动式。继往开来、 始终连接、 便于承接。如:S ome kinds of plas2tics can be forced through machines into long ,thin s trings ,called fi2bres and these fibres can be made into cloth.为了使句子失调 ,维持末端核心或者末端分量 ,以相符主语冗长、 谓语简单的抒发习气。如: I t was said that therewere many civilians were killed in the explosion. 
  (三)散体的制约    能否运用主动句并没有是由议题决议 ,也没有是口语和书面语的差别 ,而是散体的差别。某些散体较多运用主动句以投合其抒发的需求。剧本性散体中运用主动句少 ,而信息性的散体次要指高科技散体、 旧事散体、 公文散体以及论述散体 ,其运用主动句多 ,由于这类散体的形式需求主观叙说 ,力戒笔者的客观臆断 ,因而往往免提施事者。R.Altick 对于此曾作如次注释:The passive v oice allows one to express ideas without attribut2ing them to a speci fic individual s ource. That is why it is s o widelyused in g overnment communications ,in which decision and opin2ions are presumed to be those of the bureau or agency as a wholeand not of individual officials. But legitimate use can easily turninto abuse. While the convention by which g overnmental edictscome from an impers onal entity can be defended ,the indiscrimi2nate use of the passive as a grammatical camou flage can als o be asign of moral weakness. Any one who does not wish to assume per2s onal responsibility for this statements finds an “out” by writing “it isdirected that” instead of“I direct that” ,or “it is the opinion of thefirm” instead of“I think” .(1) A NoticeI t has been noted with concern that the stock of the books inthe library has been declining alarmingly. Students are asked to re2mind themselves of the rules for the borrowing and return of booksand to bear in mind the needs of other students. Penalties for over2due books will in the future be strictly en forced.(2) Rabat ,April 12 (Xinhua) :About a billion people in theworld are still threatened by malaria and two million people die ofthe disease yearly , said Profess or Mare G entilini in Aqadir , ac2cording to the local newspaper reports.The statement was made at the first tropical medicine con fer2ence held in Aqadir ,Morocco ,this week.Profess or G entilini pointed out that what even worse is thatparasites are often ass ociated with malnutrition ,bacteria and virusdisease.(3) This meth od ology which is based on graph theoretic ,matrixand permanent models ,which is used in the sys tem and s tructuralanalys is of the vehicle , has been extended in this s tudy to the eval2uation ,analys is and selection problem. 本论文英语论文网www.51lunwen.org整理提供Firs t ,the various con flictingattributes of the vehicle and their interactions are presented by thevehicle attribute graph. The vehicle attribute matrix ,als o called ma2trix model ,is developed to have a computational meth od to evaluatethe vehicles.但没有是一切句子都能够变为主动句。除非没有迭物动词和系名词没有能用主动式外 ,再有相等一全体及物名词没有能用来主动式。
    (四)名词的制约(1) I have a book.(2) He lacks con fidence.(3)Jo论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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