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敦煌和兰州服务人员回应请求话语的对比研究 [2]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2017-12-09编辑:lgg点击率:1198

论文字数:38596论文编号:org201712051648139280语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:$ 66

关键词:英语语言学论文回应服务业敦煌

摘要:本文是英语语言学论文,本文选取请求言语行为作为研究对象。请求是一种威胁说话双方面子的言语行为,因此如何对请求进行回应,是衡量说话人礼貌认知和礼貌策略使用水平的重要标准。

etheoretical framework.Exceptforthesetheoriesinpragmatics,thispaperalsoneedssupportfromtheCCSARPcoding manual to give methodological foundations.

2.1 SpeechAct Theory
Speech act theory is proposed by J. L. Austin in a series of speeches and thensystematically explained in his book How to Do Things with Words (1962). Austinbelieved that it was an ever-lasting misconception that language could only be used todescribe some “state of affairs” or “fact” and such fact had to be true or false (Austin,1962). He pointed out this common misconception held by many philosophers and putforward the core concept of speech act theorywhich claimed that sayingsomething wasdoing something; or by or in saying something we were actually doing something.Austin further explained the three acts contained in speech: locutionary act,illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. A locutionary act was an “act of sayingsomething in the full normal sense”; an illocutionary act was about the various kinds of“functions of language” in and of saying something; a perlocutionary act was theconsequences producing upon the emotions, ideas, or behaviors of the hearer, or of thespeaker, or of other people.Besides, Austin’s speech act theory gave a classification of five illocutionaryacts: verdictives which referred to official or unofficial announcement of findings;exercitives that were related to decisions in course of actions; commissives whosepoints were to commit speakers to certain actions; behabitives that expressed attitudestowards something; expositives which were connected with elaboration on opinions,argumentation or usages.Austin’s speech act theory is one of the most significant theories in the field oflinguistics and pragmatics. The theory provides a new perspective for us to look at andcomprehend the essence of language (He, 2013).
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2.2 Politeness Principle
Politeness principle was proposed by Leech as an attempt to remedy thecooperativeprincipleput forwardbyGrice. Leechtriedtoexplainthatspeakers violatedthe maxims of cooperative principle for politeness. He defined the two sides involvedin a conversation as “self” and “other”. Furthermore, “benefit” and “cost” in his theorydid not refer to material gain and loss but what in their broadest meaning.Brown & Levinson defined politeness as the rational behaviors a model personemployed for saving face (1987). Therefore, their politeness theory is also referred toas face-saving theory. Here, “face” referred to “the public self-image” every modelperson intended to keep and there were two kind of faces: positive face, the desire to beagreed with or liked by others and negative face, the freedom to be away fromimposition or intervention.In other words, the threat was determined together by social distance betweenspeakers and listeners, relative power of speakers and listeners and absolute ranking ofimposition in specific cultures.Brown & Levinson claimed that speakers employed politeness strategies tomitigate the threat to face and there were five types of strategies: bald on record withoutredressive actions, positive politeness, negative politeness, off record and not do theFTA.
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Chapter Three Literature Review..........17
3.1 Studies of Requests .........17
3.2 Studies of Responses.......21
3.3 Studies of Dunhuang and Lanzhou Dialects.............23
3.3.1 Studies of Dunhuang Dialect.....23论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。
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