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UK Sciences assignment :The improper functioning deformity

论文作者:英语论文网论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2012-05-15编辑:dawm_zhong点击率:1290

论文字数:1745论文编号:org201205150946259593语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:functioning deformityimproperSciences

摘要:留学作业代写:The drugs for RA can be Analgesics, Non-steriod anti-inflammatory(NSAIDS)drugs, Corticosteriods or DMARDs (disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug ).Patients suffering from the RA often have complaints about fatigue, pain, swelling.

 

    Suffers also complain about the improper functioning deformity in the joints resulting in their disability.

To cure RA effectively, a drug must be designed that targets the chemical messengers or cells that activate an inflammatory response in the body of the sufferer. Keeping this in mind a therapy known as biologics has been developed . this therapy becomes effective when a combined effect of DMARDs along with synthetic proteins or a antibody are made to target Tumor necrosis factor a(TNF a,a cytokine ) responsible for activating inflammation in the body. This concoction can be injected directly into the skin at intervals prescribed by the doctor.the biologics http://www.51lunwen.org/liuxuezuoyedx/ therapy include etanercept (Enbrel), infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira) certolizumab (Cimzia) and golimumab (Simponi) which are legally approved by the NICE(National Institute for Clinical Excellence).the ----------- drug contains adalimumab (Humira) to hit the target

 

Working mode:

 

adalimumab (Humira) is an antibody which can be consumed without methotrexate, anti TNF drug which blocks the tumour necrosis factor,Humira effectively reduces pain and joint inflammation in treating RA,

 

NIKITHA:

 

Pharmaceutical companies spend billions of pounds in research and development of a new drug.

The cost of developing new drugs and finally marketing them is very steep. Pharmaceutical companies have to find various methods and strategies to maintain the development costs. The overall time required from discovery of a new compound to approval of a new drug ranges between 12 to 15 years.

The steps in the investment period are methodical and painstaking.

The following steps are involved

Pre clinical - At the his phase extensive testing of the product in the laboratory must be done to ensure it is safe for human administration. Animal testing http://www.51lunwen.org/liuxuezuoyedx/ may also occur to determine the drugs chemical and physical properties. Testing for pharmacokinetic, pharmacologic, and toxicologic effects must also be done

Once the preclinical phase is passed and the results indicate that the compound of interest may have value for clinical development. On completion of this phase the company submits an investigational new drug (IND) application to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to begin clinical studies. The IND exhibits the preclinical data inclusive of its results and a precise plan to begin a clinical trial. The IND indicates a target disease(s) for which the preclinical data indicate the drug may have effectiveness. Once the FDA has approved the IND, the sponsor's groundwork for the clinical trial is on the go

Clinical trails are grouped and conducted in a series of steps as each step has a different objective. Phases I, II, III

 

Phase I Clinical Development (Human Pharmacology) - 30 days following the filing of the IND a biopharmaceutical company may begin a small-scale Phase I clinical trial unless the study is put on hold by the FDA . Phase I trials include testing of this new drug on a small group of (20 to 80) people. The trails initially include single dose administration and then repeated dose administration to determine the metabolic and pharmacologic actions of drugs in humans and the side effects related with the increase in dosage. And finally decide a safe dosage range.<论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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