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留学生作业:衡量贫困的战略 Strategies to Measure Poverty

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2017-12-25编辑:cinq点击率:426

论文字数:2000论文编号:org201712251404058890语种:中文论文 Chinese地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:留学生作业assignment范文贫困

摘要:本文是留学生作业范文,主要内容是解释贫困的相关定义,包括相对贫困和绝对贫困,以及衡量贫困的不同方式。

贫困是一个社会问题,它被认为是社会不平等的一个特点。因为他们认为导致贫困的“所有社会的政治和道德的挑战时刻”。贫穷定义为“在道德上不可接受和要求采取行动的短缺”。或者更正式地说,贫困可以被定义为“收入低于平均百分比的人”。
有两种类型的贫困,取决于衡量的方式,这些类型是:相对贫困和绝对贫困。绝对贫困是指与身体生存有关的最低物质需求,考虑到食物、衣物和住所。另一方面,相对贫困通常与社会需要有关,而且是收入不平等的一个特征,可以被描述为与其他事物的比较。换言之,它可能是无法拥有的东西,大多数人在社会上认为这是必不可少的。为了说明这并了解必要受到舆论,进行的一项调查
 
Poverty is a social problem and it has been considered as a feature of inequality in society. This view is shared by Machperson & Silburn (1998, 1), as they consider poverty as a cause of 'political and morale challenges to all societies at all times'.

Roll (1992, 7) defined poverty as a 'shortage of something which is morally unacceptable and calls for action'. Or in a more official way, poverty can be defined as 'the number of people with incomes below an arbitrary percentage of the average' Gordon et al (2000, 8).

There are two types of poverty depending on the way that it is measured, those types are: relative and absolute poverty. Absolute poverty refers to the minimum physical needs that are associated with physical survival, taking account of food, clothing, and shelter (Roll, 1992, 14).

On the other hand, relative poverty is usually related to social needs and as is a feature of income inequality and can be described as being a comparison to something else (Roll, 1992, 15). In other words it could be the inability to have stuff that most people in society think it is essential. To illustrate this and to understand public opinion on the subject of necessities, a survey carried out by 1500 people in 1999 produced the following results: over 90% of the population in each case perceive 'beds and bedding for everyone', 'heating', 'damp-free home', 'visiting friends or family' and 'medicine prescribed by doctor' as items which adults should have in Britain. By contrast, less than 10 per cent sees mobile phones and internet access as necessary' Gordon et al (2000, 18).However, nowadays, internet access and mobile phones are considered as necessities to most people in society, so those who cannot afford them are counted in relative poverty.

There are many ways to measure poverty and they could vary from country to another. The measurement of poverty aims to help develop new policies to reduce the extent of poverty, and enables politicians to determine how many people live in poverty and what the social characteristics associated with them are, such as gender and age (MacPherson & Silburn, 1998, 8). Each measure of poverty has advantages and disadvantages, and has different influence on policy. For example, 'income thresholds approach' defines poverty as being under a specific threshold level in terms of households average income or benefit levels. In the UK, it is 'the most common measure of poverty', and a household is said to be in poverty if its income, after taxes, is less than 60% of the UK median for that year' (Aldridge et al, 2013).

The main advantage of this approach is that it is simple as it does not require detailed data from people (Gordon et al, 2000, 74), and that 'the standard of need is implicit in the benefit levels decided by government' (Gordon et al, 2000, 74). However, there are some problems with using this approach; for example, it could be argued when the thresholds based on the average income that it is measuring the inequality of income rather than measuring poverty. Also MacPherson & Silburn (1998, 14) argued that 'th论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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