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“国家如何整合本地人的习惯性土地权利,成为赞比亚经济发展的投资目标?”

论文编号:lw201605092340067644 所属栏目:留学生毕业论文 发布日期:2018年10月11日 论文作者:无忧论文网
1.0 Background背景
通过土地来确保穷人之间的可持续生计,土地是一种带来归属感的象征,是社会认同感和权力的主要资源。它可以是我们自给自足也可以是对冲贫困的资源。在第一世界国家,土地对农村穷人来说是有价值的。这是土著民族的财富,任何政府都应该有意将财富公平地分配给其人民。另一方面,明显的案例表明,农村贫困人口已经流离失所,以便精英在征得法律同意的情况下获得土地。土地收购导致人们被排除在狩猎、放牧、仪式集会、木柴集会,捕鱼等一般水权之外(ZLA,2004)。人们的流离失所也是所谓的土地掠夺的结果,并已航行通过前殖民时代到最近。
根据Borras和Franco(2012)的研究,“土地抢夺”是指最近的跨国商业土地交易,通常与食品,动物饲料,生物燃料,木材和矿物的生产和出口有关。土地掠夺,又称租借,是2007-08年粮食价格危机的结果,当时土地和水资源短缺的国家被全球市场推向寻找可生产粮食的替代地区(如中国)。这导致发展中国家成为土地、水和廉价劳动力供应充足的目标。然而,人们担心当地穷人可能失去对这一主要资源的获取和控制(Braun和Minzen-Dick,2009)。
Sustainable livelihoods among the poor are ensured through land which is a prime resource that brings about a sense of belonging, social identity and power. A resource which provides self sufficiency and a hedge against poverty. Land is as valuable to the rural poor as technology would be in first world countries. It is the wealth of the indigenous people and should be any governments good intention to equitably distribute it among its people. On the other hand evident cases have shown that the rural poor have been displaced in order for the elite to acquire the land with the consent of the law. Land acquisitions have resulted in  people being excluded from their commonage for hunting, animal grazing, ceremonial gatherings, firewood gathering, fishing as general rights to water (ZLA, 2004). The displacement of people is also as a result of what is known as land grabbing and has sailed through pre-colonial times to recent times.
According to Borras and Franco (2012) 'land grab' refers to the recent transnational commercial land transactions commonly related to the production and export of food, animal feed, bio fuels, timber and minerals. The land grab, otherwise known as leasing is as a result of the food price crisis of 2007-08 where countries that are short on land and water resources 1have been pushed by global markets to seek alternative areas where food can be produced (eg China). This has led to developing countries being targeted where land, water and cheap labour are in abundant supply. However, there is concern for the local poor people who risk losing their access and control over this primary resource (Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009).
In general, third world countries are leasing land to foreign investors. In most cases, governments have the right to alienate land under the presumption that customary land is available, placing their citizens land on the global market without their consent. Hence the government are the land grabbers as investors are on the receiving end upon making their requests. This concept has resulted in majority rural landholders squatters on their own land. Land plots are being secured more easily but large tracts of land which are being used as communal land are still left for reallocation by governments. Focus of investment has been on land rich and income poor Sub Sahara Africa where values of customary land are reasonably cheap, customary tenure laws are unclear and cost of   labour is cheap (Wily, 2010) 
1.1 Research Problem 研究问题
Investment is celebrated in Zambia but rarely scrutinised in terms of costs and benefits especially where the poor local people are concerned. Focus has been on making stable economic reforms and policies to comply with the global market. In 1995 the Zambian Government, implemented a market based land reform  with the aim of stimulating investment and agricultural productivity to alleviate poverty in the country.
Table of Contents
1.0 Background 3
1.1 Research Problem 4
2. Literature Review 5
2.1 Land Tenure 5
2.2 Land Administration 5
2.2.1 Customary land 6
2.2.2 State Land 7
2.2.3 The 1995 land Act 7
2.3  Investment - Land Acquisitions 9
2.3.1. Who are the investors? 10
2.3.2 Why is demand on customary land high? 11
2.3.3. What are the impacts of demand on Customary Land? 13
3. Research Question 17
3.1 Objectives 17
3.2 Hypotheses 18
4. Sub Questions 18
4.1 Research Method 19
4.2 Study Design 20
5. Data Analysis 26
6. Dissertation Structure 27
7. Work Schedule 28
8. Limitations 28
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