It has been thought that Entrepreneurs, in general, are recognized by their success or their failure. However, it goes without saying that the nature of business venture that they undertake and the manner in which they handle their business, are the main factors that determine their relative success or, in fact, failure. Consequently, it is not too far-fetched to believe in the fact that such relative success could or in fact would depend on the type of business ventured into by an entrepreneur. It is even more relevant in case of women entrepreneurs as there are numerous factors that impact their ventures. They learn the nuances of business only after they start a particular venture. These factors could begin with social factors, gender differences, issues on equality as well their ability to run a business in a much dominated male environment.
Nevertheless, in order to understand the true nature of women entrepreneurship, the types of businesses undertaken in Iran need to be studied. In fact, one can examine the women entrepreneurs for not only traditional businesses but also in modern businesses, which involve some amount of technical knowledge. Indeed, one needs to take into consideration the fact that Iran is a developing country, much like India, Malaysia or even Indonesia. As claimed by Ganeshan (2004), women entrepreneurs in India generally undertake three types of industrial enterprises: (1) entrepreneurs operating purely as subcontractor on raw materials provided by their customers; (2) manufacturers of items that are usually used by large scale units; and (3) manufacturers of consumer products which are directly sold in the market. Evidently, in Iran, women are also divided in such category.
Statement of the Problem 问题陈述
The main objective of this research was finding the reasons for starting a venture or a new enterprise and, subsequently, the dominant factors that influenced women to take up entrepreneurship. Studies have revealed that women became entrepreneurs due to various reasons classified as pull and push factors. Pull factors are those which encourage women to have an independent occupation. Under the influence of these factors, women entrepreneurs choose a profession as a challenge, adventure, with an urge to do something new. On the other hand, the push factors are those, which compel women to take up business enterprises to get over financial difficulties and responsibilities. Nevertheless, many women take to entrepreneurship to fulfil an urge for independence and creativity. The role of Government agencies and NGOs cannot be ignored. Women entrepreneurship is one of the key focus areas in the various policies for women development.
Therefore, in this study, the researcher would like to examine the different reasons for Iranian women to start a new business venture and compare those reasons with the difficulties that they might face such as religious limitations such as the dress code for Iranian women imposed by the government and cultural constraints such as male supremacy that regards men as superior to women. These two main factors will be studied in more depth and details since many women in Iran have been pulled back from fulfilling their innate capabilities and potentials simply because they were women and in Iranian society they had to face different forms of cultural constraints such as male supremacy as well as religious limitations that could in theory and would in practice undermine the scope of their success.
Research Questions 研究问题
Therefore, in order to conduct the f