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留学生政府债务作业范文参考

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:本科毕业论文 Thesis登出时间:2014-10-22编辑:yangcheng点击率:4296

论文字数:5703论文编号:org201409182323537527语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:债务政府支出凯恩斯多重影响家用消费

摘要:本文是一篇留学生的政府债务论文,政府支出效应对于个人消费的冲击已经很长时间处于宏观经济政策的商榷的中心舞台。正如Tobin在1952年最初在一篇文章中发表的一样。

“一个社会仅仅通过本身引起债务的装置怎么可能,欺骗自己来相信它是更富有的社会呢?”难道不是有必要承担利息费用的附加税,减少了个人财产的其他组成部分的价值?(Tobin,1971)


政府支出效应对于个人消费的冲击已经很长时间处于宏观经济政策的商榷的中心舞台。正如Tobin在1952年最初在一篇文章中发表的一样。


凯恩斯领域的研究中最为基本的成就之一就是当时和未来的经济学家看待对于个人经济和个人成分的政府支出/活动的方式的重新形成。凯恩斯主义已经开始讨论关于政府支出和税收的宏观经济效应。拥有多种多样对于国家收入和最终的消费的增加的政府支出,其附加美元的概念开始被著名的“凯恩斯多重影响”所熟知。财政政策的设计和工作理念需要理解对于政府对于家用消费在产品和服务方面的购买/支出的影响


“How is it possible that a society merely by a device of incurring a debt to itself can deceive itself into believeing that it is wealthier ? Do not the additional taxes which are necessary to carry the interest charges reduce the value of other components of private wealth?”(Tobin 1971)

The effects of government spending shocks on private consumption have been at centre stage of the macroeconomic policy debate for quite a long time. As Tobin noted above in an article issued originally in 1952.

One of the most elementary achievements in the Keynesian field of study has been the re-formation of the way economists of the time and coming future view the impacts of government expenditure/activity on the private economy and its constituents. The Keynesian's started to talk about the macro-economic effects of government expenditure and taxation. The notion of an additional dollar of government expenditure having a manifold increase on national income and in turn consumption came to be known as the famous ‘Keynesian Multiplier Affect'. The design and working of fiscal policy demands an understanding of the effect of government purchases/expenditure of goods and services on household consumption. One potentially important means of influence is that government services and private consumption are inseparable in a Households utility function. The impact of the government activity depends upon whether it increases or decreases the marginal utility of private consumption (i.e., whether government purchases are Edgeworth complements or substitutes for private consumption).Following Modgiliani, an increase in government debt (Government debt defined, is money owed by the government. Government draws its income from the society) implies an increase in perceived household wealth which induces higher consumption and suppresses savings. The rise in consumption via the multiplier increases aggregate demand and interest rates and investment is thus crowded out. This line of reasoning hinges on the assumption that households perceive the rise in debt as an increase in their wealth.

The crowding out phenomenon mentioned above is one of the fundamental parts of Keynesian literature and is disputed by almost no one. It says that government deficit spending that is not backed up by an equivalent issue of new money carries with it an inherent need for the authority ( in this case the government) to issue debt that would compete with private financial instruments in the market. This would reduce private expenditures that are interest elastic due to increase in interest rates. This side effect in part offsets the originally intended expansionary effect of the increase in government expenditure.

Monetarists argue that the Keynesian textbook story ends too soon and cling to the view that fiscal policy is ineffective. The rationale behind this can be found by looking at a simple IS-LM model where th论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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