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论文作者:留学生论文论文属性:讲稿 Lecture Notes登出时间:2011-03-03编辑:anterran点击率:6875

论文字数:4467论文编号:org201103031035391829语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:mass media and society留学生用英语

例子1,2,3,4,5,6,7,11,13都出自于<mass media and society>,作者Gurevitch, Michael页码121,122.例子8,9,10,12都出自于<the 代写留学生论文media,journalism and democracy>,作者 Scammell, Margaret 页码21,22,23
1 implicit in this outline is a complex set of requirements for a democratic media system. It should empower people by enabling them to explore where their interest lies; it should foster sectional solidarities and assist the functioning of organizations necessary for the effective representation of collective interests; it should sustain vigilant scrutiny of government and centres of power; it should provide a source of protection and redress for weak and unorganized interests; and it should create the conditions for real societal agreement or compromise based on an open working through of differences rather than a contrived consensus based on elite dominance. This can best be realized through the establishment of a core public service broadcasting system, encircled by private enterprise, social market, professional and civic media sectors. These latter will strengthen the functioning of public service broadcasting as an open system of dialogue, and give added impetus to the collective ,self-organized tradition of civil society.
1 隐含在这个纲要是一个复杂的一套要求建立一个民主的媒体系统。它应赋予人权力,使他们能够在探索的兴趣在于,它应促进截面solidarities ,并协组织运作所必需的有效代表性的集体利益;它应该保持警觉监督政府和权力心,它应该提供一个源的保护和补救的薄弱和无组织的利益; ,并应创造条件使真正的社会协议或妥协的基础上一种开放的工作通过的分歧,而不是做作的基础上协商一致的精英优势。这才能最好地实现了通过建立核心公共广播服务系统,包围的民营企业,社会市场,专业媒体和民间部门。这些后者将加强运作的公共广播服务作为一个开放系统的对话,进一步推动集体,自我组织传统的民间社会。

2 the principal democratic role of the media, according to liberal theory, is to act as a check on the state. The media should monitor the full range of state activity, and fearlessly expose abuses of official authority.
2 民主的主要媒介作用,根据自由主义理论,是作为检查的状态。媒体应监督全方位的国家活动,并大胆揭露侵犯官方的权威。
3 this watchdog role is said to override in importance all other functions of the media. It dictates the form in which the media system should be organized.Only by anchoring the media to the free market,in this view, is it possible to ensure the media's complete independence from government.Once the media becomes subject to public regulation, it may lose its bite as a watchdog.Worse still, it may be transformed into a snarling Rottweiler in the service of the state.
3 这个看家狗角色在重要性说忽略媒介的其他作用。 它口授中型系统应该组织的形式。通过停住对自由市场的媒介,在这个看法,仅是它可能保证从政府的媒介的完全独立。一旦媒介成为受公开章程支配,它也许丢失它的叮咬作为看家狗。更坏仍然,它也许被变换成一咆哮Rottweiler在状态的服务。
4 this orthodox liberal view is especially well entrenched in the United States.For instance Kelley and Donway,two American political scientists of conservative sympathies, argue that any reform of the media ,however desirable, is unacceptable if it is 'at the cost of the watchdog function.And this is the inevitable cost.A press that is licensed,franchized or regulated is subject to political pressures when it deals with issues affecting the interests of those in power.(Kelley and Donway,1990:97)This reservation is restated by the centrist political theorist,Stephen Holmes,as a rhetorical question:'Doesn't every regulation converting the media into a "neutral forum" lessen its capacity to act as a partisangadfly,investigating and criticising government in an aggressive way?'(Holmes,1990:51).Even American analysts with strongly reformist views share the same fear:'I cannot envision any kind of content regulation,however indirect,'writes media critic,Carl Stepp,'that wouldn't project government into the position of favouring or disfavouring some views 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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