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美国留学论文-如何正确认识和对待种族歧视

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:硕士毕业论文 dissertation登出时间:2014-07-21编辑:felicia点击率:9874

论文字数:16157论文编号:org201407201653132260语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:奴隶制全球化slavery种族歧视human historyAdventures of Huckleberry Finnnegative feelings

摘要:本文是一篇美国留学论文。奴隶制度在历史上被认为普遍存在的,现在人们提起奴隶制度,就会想起消极、暴力、酷刑、绑架、谋杀、自卑、惩罚以及人类心灵和精神的故意破坏。本文以马克·吐温的《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》,分析了种族歧视的历史和概念,进一步分析该如何正确认识和对待种族歧视。

前言 INTRODUCTION

根据奴隶制研究的普遍观点,奴隶制被认为是人类历史截止至今的普遍特性。奴隶制度的起源有确凿的证据,很多古代的书面文件幸存下来,流传至今,例如汉谟拉比代码和基督教的《旧约全书》显示,奴隶制度是早期文明的基础上建立起来的。现在,联合国(以下简称UN)报告揭示,大量的妇女、儿童和男性被剥削和强迫沦为奴隶,每年贩卖的人口大约是从800万到三百万。因此,全球化不仅带来了积极的文化交流,而且还带来了流行世界各地的奴隶制度,随之提高了应对和消除这种痛苦问题的讨论。


关于“奴隶制”这个词,它表示消极、暴力、酷刑、绑架、谋杀、自卑、惩罚以及人类心灵和精神的故意破坏”。然而,历史学家描述,奴隶制度在人类历史上一直被视为是低劣的,不文明的,野蛮的。马克·吐温的《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》的故事描绘了南方黑人的自由愿景,一个逃跑的奴隶被视为是迷信的,没有受过教育的,暴力的。


According to widely held view on slavery, it is has been acknowledged that it is ‘a virtually universal feature of human history' that has preserved up to nowadays. As absolute proof of old origins of slavery accounts to the fact that there are written documents survived from ancient times as written in e.g., the Code of Hammurabi and The Old Testament showing that slavery was established in the early civilizations. As to present days, the United Nations' (hereafter UN) reports reveal a ‘huge number' of women, children and men being exploited and forced into slavery ranging from at least eight hundred- thousand to three million people trafficked annually. Therefore, globalization has brought not only positive cultural exchanges, but also endemic slavery around the world, raising a discussion of tackling and eliminating this painful issue.


Concerning the term ‘slavery', it denotes much of negativism and violence e.g., torture, kidnap, murder, inferiority, punishment as well as ‘the wilful destruction of human mind and spirit' (Bales, 2005:6). Nevertheless, the historians (Bales:2005;David:2004; Kopytoff:1977) describe that slaves throughout human history have been treated as inferior, uncivilized and bestialized e.g., Mark Twain's story ‘The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn' portrays the Southerners' vision of a runaway slave who is perceived as superstitious, uneducated and perhaps violent thing: merely a human in their view.


This helps to explain the hostile or negative feelings, attitudes and actions towards one ethnic group of people, in this case a white person's disdain and superiority overblack person. The superiority of white or Caucasian race derives from times of slavery as the historian Kevin Bales (2005:7) states slavery can damage people's mind, namely, (1) slaves; (2) slaveholders and (3) members of society who live this system. As to Bales (ibid), such society accepts dehumanization of a person that allow prospering slavery around the globe. Thus, we can observe that slavery has remerged not only in many different times throughout human history, but also is present in our times. This research paper aims at illustrating a link between past and present displayed in Mark Twain's literary works. They reveal that slavery in the South can be perceived as a ghost of the past, which has been equally haunting African Americans and Caucasian race. 


As a result, the past has widened a gap between those two races in America. William Faulkner has said that ‘only with Twain, Walt Whitman became a true indigenous American culture' (quoted in Hutchinson, 1998:80). Mark Twain who was born and raised in the America's South was the pioneer of displaying the spoken language, the very American language in literature that is characterized as vivid, but with sardonic humour, neat aphorism.论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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