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全球恐怖主义研究paper

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:职称论文 Scholarship Papers登出时间:2015-02-01编辑:Cinderella点击率:3595

论文字数:3286论文编号:org201501271433298569语种:英语论文 English地区:澳大利亚价格:免费论文

关键词:terrorismglobal security911事件恐怖主义

摘要:本文从两千年前活跃在古巴勒斯坦地区的奋锐党人说起,直至当今震惊世界的美国911事件,对全球恐怖主义和恐怖组织进行了研究。

大约在两千年前的古巴勒斯坦地区,奋锐党成员将恐怖行为作为反抗罗马人对朱迪亚地区控制的手段。当时,从犹太族领袖转变成罗马支持者和历史学家的约瑟夫,记录了奋锐党分的罪行,他们混杂在人群当中,利用衣服里隐藏的短匕首在耶路撒冷大肆作案。奋锐党人证明,以恐怖组织存在的恐怖主义由来已久。


离开公元前一世纪,我们回到自己的时代,更具体来说是被描绘为“改变了人类历史”的一天——9月11日。2001年9月20日,乔治布什被公众指责认为无视这场对美袭击的严重后果,随后他解散了国会。他的国家已经“意识到了危机并试图保护自由”。为了保护自己的国家,布什宣告“反恐战争”正式开始,并设立了该声明的维度界限:这场战争将从基地组织开始,但绝不止于该组织,除非全球所有的恐怖组织都被发现、制止直至击败。一切给恐怖分子提供庇护的国家都会被美国下达最后通牒:要么和我们站在一起,要么和恐怖分子为伍。这显然表明,反恐过程里没有第三条道路,也没有中立国家。任何容忍甚至鼓励恐怖主义的证券,都会被美国当做敌对方,因为其危害了美方利益。


Nearly two millennia ago, in Ancient Palestine, the Zealots- Sicarii used terrorism as a means to oppose the Roman occupation of Judea. At the time, Josephus Flavius, a Jewish commander who changed to become a Roman supporter and historian, records how the Zealots-Sicarii mingled in the crowds in Jerusalem committing murders using the short daggers (sica) that they had concealed in their clothes. Zealots show that the existence of terrorism in the form of terrorist groups has a long history.


Leaving behind the 1st century A.D., we will arrive to our century and more specifically to the day which was portrayed as the day that “changed the world”, September 11. On 20 September, 2001 George W. Bush, heavily criticised for his invisibility throughout the immediate aftermath of the attacks on the US, addressed Congress. His nation had been “awakened to danger and called to defend freedom” [1] . In order to defend his nation George W. Bush declared the “war on terror” by setting up also the dimensions of this declaration: it begins with Al-Qaida, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found, stopped and defeated. All nations that “provide aid or safe haven to terrorists” would be pursued relentlessly on the basis of an ultimatum that either “you are with us or you are with the terrorists” ( P. Scraton, 2002, page 5). That simply means that there is no third way, no neutral territories. Any regime tolerating or “encouraging terrorism” would be designed “hostile” because threats US interests.


Regardless of international mandate, formal political debate or democratic political process and in contravention of international law and conventions, Bush prepared the ground for the inevitable. This “war” was not only against Islam but against any ubiquitous terrorism. With over 60 nation-states already proscribed as hostile, the long haul announced and the “defence of civilisation” as the high moral purpose , the US was going to war (P. Scraton, 2002, page 5). Any state which was not party to Bush administration's solution, it would be regarded part of its problem. US has been authorized to define, name and eliminate “terrorist” organizations, their members and their associates.


On behalf of UK, Tony Blair endorsed the Bush speech without qualification and the president did not disappoint: the US, he stated, had “no truer friend than Great Britain” with the two states now “joined together in a great cause”. Eight days later in his speech to the Labour Party's annual conference Blair declared September 11 to b论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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