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论文作者:英语论文论文属性:课程作业 Coursework登出时间:2015-01-14编辑:pesix4点击率:3476

论文字数:2443论文编号:org201501121028159121语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:New ProjectDevelopment ModelsManagement新产品开发



New Product Development may be defined as the set of tasks, processes and efforts made in envisioning, developing, implementing and controlling a new product and/ or a service into the target market (Ullman, 2009). New product development (NPD) is widely recognized as a key to corporate prosperity Lam et al., 2007). Different products may require different processes, a new product idea needs to be conceived, selected, developed, tested and launched to the market (Martinez-Sanchez et al., 2006). The specialized skills and talents required for the development of new products often reside (and develop) locally in pockets of excellence around the company or even around the world. Firms, therefore, have no choice but to disperse their new product units to access such dispersed knowledge and skills (Kratzer et al., 2005). As a result, firms are finding that internal development of all technology needed for new products and processes are difficult or impossible. They must increasingly acquire technology from external sources (Stock and Tatikonda, 2004).

Today’s successful firms learn and re-learn how to deal with the dynamics of consumers, competitors and technologies, all of which require companies to review and reconstitute the products and services they offer to the market. This, in turn, requires the development of new products and services to replace current ones, a notion inherent in the discussion of Levitt’s (1960) ‘Marketing Myopia’. A recent report into Best New Product Practice in the UK showed that, across a broad range of industry sectors, the average number of new products launched in the previous 5 years was 22, accounting for an average 36 per cent of sales and 37 per cent of profits (Tzokas, 2000). The most recent PDMA Best Practice Survey noted an average number of 38.5 new products in the previous 5 years, contributing to 32.4 per cent of sales and 30.6 per cent of profits (Griffin,1997). This chapter is concerned with what is required to bring new products and services to market, often encompassed by the framework known as the new product development (NPD) process.

Of the many factors associated with successful NPD, processes and structures which are customer-focused recur (Cooper, 1979; Maidique and Zirger, 1984; Craig and Hart, 1992). A customer focus may be manifested in NPD in numerous ways, spawning much research into the nature of new product activities: their nature, their sequence and their organization (Mahajan and Wind, 1992; Griffin, 1997).

新产品开发模式---New Product Development Models:

The issue at stake here is that good ideas do not automatically translate into workable, appealing products. The idea has to be given a physical reality which performs the function of the idea, which potential customers find an attractive alternative for which they are prepared to pay the asking price. This task requires NPD to be managed actively, working though a set of activities which ensure that the eventual product is makeable, affordable, reliabl论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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