1.1 Research topic
With the deepening of China’s opening-up policy, China is playing a more and more vitalrole in international trade. According to the latest data posted by the Ministry ofCommerce of the People’s Republic of China, the EU continues to remain the largesttrading partner of China for the tenth year. In 2014, the total trading volume betweenChina and the EU amounts to US$615.1 billion, which accounts for 14.3% of China’stotal trading volume. According to EU official report, bilateral trade in goods between theEU and China already well exceeds € 1 billion per day.However, China’s uniquepolitical system has become center of many controversial issues which often end up intrade frictions. In 2014, there are 22 countries and districts which initiated as many as 97trade remedy investigation against China. The most recent and compelling example isfrictions over China’s solar panels. After nearly two years’ continuous negotiations andpainstaking efforts, this case finally eased down at the end of 2013. It is obvious that witha bigger part China is going to play in international trade, more trade investigation casesagainst China are bound to pop up. Therefore, it is the author’s intention to explore howofficial organizations, in this case, Chinese government and European Commission, reactto trade frictions in terms of its official statements, what constitutes an effective officialresponse, and hopefully find potential patterns beneath the language they use in order toconstruct persuasion mechanism. In this way, the author intends to better ourunderstandings of how official organizations, both Chinese governments and Europeancommittees, deploy appraisal resources to construct persuasion mechanism, and how wecan use this understanding to help us issue more effective official statements in the futureso that we can persuade our counterparts to subconsciously make decisions that arebeneficial to us.
1.2 Definition of trade frictions
Generally speaking, trade frictions refer to conflicts or frictions in terms of interest whichemerge from measures taken by one or multiple countries for the sake of their owneconomic, political, cultural or military interest.(Zhou Lu, 2010). It is characterized byvarious methods adopted in order to take up world market. Trade war is the most extremeresults of trade frictions.
There are mainly two kinds of trade frictions: frictions in its narrow sense andfrictions in its broad sense. Frictions in its narrow term often refer to frictions concerningcargo trade. It is often caused by high customs, unilateral quantity limitation, dumpingand anti-dumping, subsidy and anti-subsidy and other types of frictions caused byintellectual property rights. Frictions in its broad term often refer to frictions concerningnot only cargo trade, but also service and technology trade. In recent years, althoughfrictions are concentrated in cargo trade, frictions emerge from service trade are alsoincreasing. The trade friction discussed in this research mainly refers to the friction in itsnarrow sense, which is the friction concerning cargo trade. Rationale.
Since 1990, there has been as many as more than 130 trade investigation casesagainst China issued by EU, among which anti-dumping case takes up as many as 127cases (Ren, 2009). It undoubtedly has brought tremendous economic losses to China,especially to its export. Besides, there emerged new tendencies which lead EU to adoptseverer sanctions on larger range of products imported from China. It is safe to say thattrade frictions are highly likely to emerge again and again in the near future. Therefore, itis advised to learn from previous trade frictions cases in order to better handle upcomingones.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature Review of News Discourse
News refers to the communication of selected information on current events which isshared in various ways: among individuals, in a small or l