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论法律、宗教和道德的建设Construction of law, morality, and religion

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2012-03-13编辑:lena ding点击率:3380

论文字数:1724论文编号:org201203131134428374语种:英语论文 English地区:瑞典价格:免费论文

关键词:Marx and Nietzschelawmoralityreligion

摘要:本文旨在论述马克思、尼采两人的哲学理论中对于法律、宗教和道德的构建体系。

Construction of law, morality, and religion 

 

In my work, I would like to study the construction of law, morality, and religion as they were presented in the philosophical systems of Marx and Nietzsche. Both, Marx and Nietzsche, are among the most influential German philosophers. A lot of fundamental concepts of their works are different, but there are views on most things are similar. They both were interested in the mechanisms of power, the way people obtain and hold it and both determined religion, morality and laws as the part of these mechanisms. At he same time they had fundamentally different vision of the structure and moving powers of culture, religion and ethics and these differences discover differences, which separate their works. Marx was interested in social mechanisms of power and Nietzsche studied individual reactions.

In my work I would like to center on the attitude to the control of law, religion and moral expressed by these two philosophers. Both Marx and Nietzsche expressed negative attitude to moral and religion. Marx’s theory of ruling ideas supports the thesis that these ideas present the interests of the ruling class. These ideas get the name of ruling ideas and present the fundamental moral, political, ethical and economic ideas profitable for the ruling class. In his Communist Manifesto Marx states that “Law, morality, religion are to [the proletariat] so many bourgeois prejudices, behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests” (Marx). By these words he means that law, morality and religion become only the strongest weapon people use to rule and manipulate weaker people. Marx rejects the higher moral values regarding them only as an instrument in the hands of bourgeoisie. All ideas expressed by Karl Marx should be regarded in the context of his theory of society and as an integral part of this theory. Unlike Nietzsche, Marx didn’t criticize religious set of beliefs, as he was more interested in the social aspect of religion and its role in the society. “Thus the criticism of heaven turns into the criticism of earth, the criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics” (Marx) and he uses supportive arguments to prove his belief that religion is a product of human origin, created in order to manipulate people. “Man makes religion, religion doesn’t make man. Religion is the self-consciousness and self-esteem of man who has either not yet found himself or has already lost himself again.” (Marx).

According to Marx religions religion doesn’t reflect true state of events and possesses no divine origin. Being a human product, religion doesn’t reflect the consciousness of the waste majority of people but set of manipulative techniques used by the ruling class in order to distract the attention of poor from their miserable situation and justify unfairness. Religion serves as opium, which poisons the minds of people creating illusory ideals and happiness. Marx saw true liberation in destroying the hobbles created by religion. Though, it’s worth to mention that Marx didn’t believe that religion was created by the bourgeoisie but was the historical result of the centuries of exploitation. In the beginning, religion wasn’t the product of capitalism but was wisely used by the ruling class for its sake.
Marx’s attitude to moral and ethics was identical to his attitude to religion. He regarded morals of one of the ins论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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