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英国作业范文:全球流动对国家发展的影响 Effect of Global Mobility on Country Development

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2017-10-27编辑:cinq点击率:280

论文字数:2000论文编号:org201710271523439408语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:英国作业留学生作业全球流动

摘要:本文是英国留学生作业范文,主要内容是分析和研究全球流动性的相关内容,及其对国家发展所带来的一系列影响。

流动性使人们能够在国内或国际上迁移。国际移徙关系到接收国和派遣国的发展。移民和汇款在塑造国际发展的重要性导致了联合国千年发展目标特征在他们移民与汇款(MDG)和联合国2015年后发展议程。联合国估计,2000年约有2亿3200万人迁移,2013年这一数字增加了32%。
世界范围内越来越多的国际汇款流动使国际移徙受到国内移徙的重视。向发展中国家汇款的国际流动正在增加,超过官方发展援助和私人债务和投资组合股本。在受援国中,发展中国家经常收到大量汇款收据,最大的受援国是东亚和太平洋地区的国家(EAP)。2013年-2015年汇款流向发展中国家估计4040亿美元达到5150亿美元。发展中国家收到的汇款近53%流向EAP区域,预计该地区在2012年是1090亿美元。

Mobility enables people to migrate either internally or internationally. International migration relates to the development of both receiving and sending countries. The importance of migration and remittance in shaping international development has led the United Nations to feature migration and remittances in their Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and post-2015 UN Development Agenda. The United Nations estimated that in 2013 there are about 232 million people migrated internationally and this number had increased 32 percent since 2000 (UN DESA, 2013).

A growing number of international financial flows of remittance worldwide have made international migration received more attention compare to internal migration. International flow of remittance to developing countries is increasing and exceed official development assistance and private debt and portfolio equity (World Bank, 2013). Among recipient countries, developing countries always record high number of remittance receipt and the largest recipients are countries in the region of East Asia and Pacific (EAP). The Flow of remittances transfer to developing countries amount to USD 404 billion in 2013 (World Bank, 2014) and estimated to reach $515 billion by 2015. Almost 53 percent of remittances received by developing countries goes to the EAP region and this region was expected to receive $109 billion in 2012 (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Trend in remittance flows to five largest recipient in the EAP region (US$ millions)



Source: The World Bank, 2012

Meanwhile, internal migration involves more flow of people, particularly in developing countries. Report of UNDP Human Development in 2009 shows internal migrations far exceed and four times larger than international migration. Movement of people within the same nation involves 740 million, meanwhile movement of people internationally involves 214 million of people. Moreover, internal migration data between 2000 and 2010 shows intensities of movement rises in several Asian countries with more tendency towards increasing lifetime migration across Asia and Latin America (Bell & Edwards 2013).

Short distance is one of features of internal migration that makes people to move for many reasons such as to escape from poverty, to get better opportunities or to diversify income sources. In this type of migration we see the flow of people from rural to urban areas. For developing countries, many estimations report that around 40 percent growth of urban population come from migration or reclassification of rural to urban (Chen et al. 1998; UN-Habitat 2008). Although internal migration involved a significantly higher number of people, however it receives much less attention to the researcher of migration compared to international migration particularly in terms of empirical evidences (Zanker & Azzari, 2010; Harttgen & Klasen, 2011)

Movement of people either internally or internationally has many economic and social implications for migrants and household sending migrants and for sending an论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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