Chapter 1 Literature Review
1.1 Previous researches abroad
Although researches on communication strategies have a relativelyshort history, they have been carried out with various experimentalanalyses and contributed a lot to the development of such fields asapplied linguistic and second language acquisition.Varadi (1973) first conducted an empirical study on communicationstrategies. He designed a task called a picture story description which hasbeen adopted in subsequent studies by many other researchers. In thisstudy, he made a classification of communication strategies from his ownperspective.Bialystok (1983) examined the use of communication strategies by17-year-old learners of French as a second language. Learners weretagged as advanced or regular learners according to test scores. The resultshowed that advanced learners used more L2-based strategies while theregular learners used more LI-based strategies. The reason for thephenomena would be due to the fact that the L2-based strategies placedhigher demands on speakers' linguistic resource.The same results are also achieved in other studies. The nature of therelationship between speakers' proficiency and strategy choice wasexamined by Paribakht (1984，1985) under the guidance ofcommunication strategies taxonomy. In her study, advanced andintermediate learners of English, whose native language was Persian, andsome native speakers of English participated in the study. The strategiesthat they chose to examine included four categories: linguistic approach,contextual approach, conceptual approach and mime, which were dividedaccording to her taxonomy. Her conclusion was that native speakers andadvanced learners used more frequently the linguistic approach while theintermediate learners used more frequently the conceptual approach. Thecontextual approach was employed equally by all the three groups. Mimewas more often used by the learners than by the native English speakers.
1.2 Previous researches in China
When it came to communication strategies studies in Chinesecontext, it would be divided into three stages.The first stage was from the 1980's to 1990’s during which timethere were few researches on communication strategies in China. One ofthe most magnificent features during this period was the prosperity ofrelative western theories introduction. Varied researches oncommunication strategies in Chinese context were carried out by somefamous Chinese scholars under the influence of those western theories. Some researches on how to apply communication strategies inEnglish teaching were conducted from the 1990，s to the beginning of thenew century. This period was considered as the second stage incommunication strategies in study in China.Chen Siqing (1990) did an empirical study on the nature of therelationship between learners' English language proficiency and theirstrategic competence. English learners of both high and low proficiencywere required to perform a task in an interview with native speakers. Thecommunication strategies employed in the communication were identifiedand analyzed. The result indicated that the high-proficiency groupemployed fewer communication strategies than the low-proficiency group.In addition, high-proficiency learners tended to employ morelinguistic-based communication strategies while low-proficiency learnerswere likely to employ more knowledge-based communication strategiesand repetition communication strategies. Finally, high-proficiencylearners were also more effective in their use of communicationstrategies.
Chapter 2 Theoretical Foundation
2.1 Language Learning Strategies Theory
The definition of language learning strategy is a complicate issue.During the past 30 years, different scholars gave their own definitions oflanguage learning strategies from their points of view. The maindefinitions can be summa