Chapter One Introduction第一章绪论
如今，英语是世界上第二广泛使用的语言，也是53个国家的官方语言，因此它在国际交流中发挥着非凡的作用。在中国，英语的重要性是显而易见的，从小学开始就成为了必修课。Nowadays, English is the second most widely spoken language in the world andan official language in 53 countries, thus it plays an extraordinary role in theinternational communication. In China, the importance of English is obvious~it is acompulsory course studied by students since primary school.
1.1 Background of the Study 研究背景
20世纪以来，“全球传播”一词不仅在学术写作中广为流行，而且在日常生活中也广为流行。近几十年来，语言教学经历了一个发展壮大的时期，从理论到实践，从国外到国内，教育专家和研究者都非常关注这些问题，比如我们是否需要在语言教学中进行文化教学，我们可以用英语教什么，以及如何教育学生培养文化（Robinson，1988; Kramsch，1994 Brislin＆Yoshida，1994; Fowler＆Mumford，1995; Landis＆Bhagat，1996; Hu Wenzhong，1992，Jia Yunxin，1997; Gao Yihong，2002）。基本上，当我们探讨语言教学与文化教学的联系与关系时，有三个主要论点我们必须涵盖。分别是具有文化维度的语言教学、平行于语言教学的文化教学和作为语言教学整体的文化教学。同时，关于文化也有争论。文化中介、文化认知、文化维度、文化社会条件和文化理解。这些观点似乎各各不相同，但是现在人们普遍认为英语教学实际上是文化教学。过去三十年关于文化维度的讨论的结果之一是文化有三个方面维度，知识，态度和行为（Karen Risager，1994）。
In the past 20th century, the term "global communication" has become apopular word not only in academic writing, but also in daily life. The past severaldecades have witnessed a period of growth and development for language teaching.From theory to practice, from abroad to domestic，educational experts and researchershave paid a lot of attention to these questions，such as whether we need to carry outcultural teaching in language teaching, what we can teach in English and how to teachour students about culture (Robinson, 1988; Kramsch, 1994; Brislin & Yoshida, 1994;Fowler & Mumford, 1995; Landis & Bhagat，1996; Hu Wenzhong, 1992, Jia Yunxin，1997; Gao Yihong, 2002). Basically speaking, when we probe into the connection andrelationship between language teaching and cultural teaching, there are three mainarguments we must cover. Respectively, they are language teaching with culturaldimension，cultural teaching as a parallel to language teaching and cultural teachingas an integral part of language teaching. At the same time, there are arguments aboutculture. In the field, the following aspects are included: cultural mediation，culturalknowledge, cultural dimension，cultural and social conditions and culturalunderstanding. Those arguments may seem to be different and various to each other，however，it is now largely accepted that English teaching is actually cultural teaching.One of the results of the last three decades' discussions about the culturaldimension is that there are three aspects in cultural dimension, respectivelyknowledge, attitude and behavior (Karen Risager, 1994). These three aspects areinterdependent to each other. In cultural teaching in college and universities at home,there are two categories — cultural knowledge and cultural understanding. It has beenproven that traditional cultural teaching focuses a lot on cultural knowledge, whichprovides students only with cultural awareness. But in fact，recent researches showthat the focus of cultural teaching should not concentrate on cultural awareness, butshould shift from cultural knowledge to cultural understanding.To summarize, regarding cultural teaching from abroad to domestic，ihe goalgenerally focuses on improving students' intercultural communication competence.However, the question about how to develop students' ability to improve theirintercultural communication competence needs to be fiuther researched.College English is a compulsory course for every college student，including theindependent college students. The foremost and forever goal of college Englishlearning is to "develop students' ability to use English in a well-rounded way，so thatin their future studies and careers as well as social interactions，they will be able tocommunicate effectively，and at the same time enhance their ability to studyindependently and improve their general cultural awareness so as to meet the needs ofChina's social development and international exchanges" (The CurriculumRequirements of College English, 2004).‘Although cultural teaching is not unusual in c