1.1 The significance of listening倾听的意义
在第二语言学习中，听力被认为是一项不可缺少的技能，随着克拉申的输入假设在20世纪80年代在学术领域越来越流行，许多学者和教师致力于研究这一理论。AsKrashen声称人类仅仅通过理解信息或通过接收可理解的输入来学习语言(Krashen 1985:112)，因此，对于当时的语言学习者来说，在Krashen的理论指导下，他们必须尽可能多地接触他们想要学习的语言。尽可能的记住这一点，学习者几乎已经掌握了克拉申理论的精髓，并把它付诸实践，即使他们在这个过程中仍然面临着许多挑战。然后我们来了解当时的学习者如何有效地将自己暴露于他们想要学习的语言中？一般来说，更多的听力和口语被认为是当时大多数学习者的有效和基本的解决方案。而且，在克拉申的一个模型中，即使学习者没有说话的能力，他们也可以通过听力来掌握语言。然而，当说话人没有足够的听力输入时，他或她可能无法顺利地与他人交流。我们可以发现这种情况特别是在面对面聊天中发生，其中一个发言者在他或她没有抓到对方的主要内容时不能对他或她的对手做出适当的回应。就罗斯特而言，倾听在语言学习的整个过程中是非常重要的。由于它为课堂上的学习者提供了语言输入，并且由于输入不那么容易理解，整个语言学习过程可能以失败告终。1999年，Vandergrift做了一项研究，表明成年人花费40-50%的交流时间听，25-30%的说话，11-16%的阅读，以及9%的写作。在交际活动中，听力处于最高地位（Vorder-GrIFT1997）。更实际的是，虽然随着时间的流逝，各种英语考试都有所变化，但是听力在各类考试中的比例仍在上升，听力似乎是正式英语考试中不可缺少的一部分。从上面的分析来看，没有必要消费更多的单词来强调语言学习过程中听力输入的重要性。In second language learning, listening has been considered as an indispensable skill.As Krashen's input hypothesis became more and more popular in academic field in1980s，many scholars and teachers devoted themselves to the studying of this theory. AsKrashen claimed that humans acquire language in only one way merely by understandingmessages or by receiving comprehensible input (Krashen 1985:112)，thus，for languagelearners at that time, guided by Krashen's theory, they must expose themselves to thelanguage they want to leam as often as possible. Bearing this in mind, the learners almostgot the essence of Krashen's theory and put it into practice even though they were stillconfronted with numerous challenges in the process. Then it comes to us how didlearners at that time efficiently expose themselves to the language they intend to leam?Generally speaking, more listening and speaking are regarded as the effective andfundamental solution to most learners then. What's more, in one of Krashen's model,even if the learners haven't got the ability to speak, they can acquire language mainlythrough listening all the same. However, when a speaker hasn't got enough listeninginput, he or she may fail in having a smooth communication with others. We can find thissituation happens especially in a face to face chat，in which one speaker can't produce anappropriate response to his or her rival when he or she hasn't caught the main contents ofthe counterparts.As far as Rost concerned, listening is very crucial in the whole process of languagelearning since it provides the learners in classroom with language input, and with lesscomprehensible input the whole language learning process may end in a failure. In 1999，Vandergrift did a research, showing that adults spend 40-50 percent of communicationtime listening, 25-30 percent speaking, 11-16 percent reading, and about 9 percentwriting. In communicative activities, listening is placed on the top position (Vandergrift1997). To be more practical, though there are changes in various English examinations inchina as time pass by, the proportion of listening in all kinds of tests is still on the riseand listening seems to be an indispensable part in a formal English examination. Fromwhat have been analyzed above, there is no need to consume more words to emphasizethe significance of listening input in language learning process.
1.2 Problems in Traditional College English Listening Teaching
The purpose of language teaching is to develop students' interactive ability, whichmeans the ability to communicate thoughts and information by using the language onehas mastered. However, the basis of acquiring this interactive ability is to develop thestudents' ability of mastering learning techniques. Listening, the same as speaking is oneof the main means to have access to language knowledge and various kinds ofinformation. According to American professor Paul's statistic study，among words andexpressions used by people in their social practice，75 percent are acquired throughlistening and speaking, and listening takes 45 percent of the whole (Paul 1989:52). As aresult, listening, as a very important part in interpersonal communication between