Chapter 1 Introduction第一章节介绍
1.1 Research Background研究背景
语言不仅是人类交流的重要工具，也是文化的一面镜子。地址形式作为语言的重要组成部分深受文化的影响。地址形式包含大量有关人的信息，包括身份，职业，地位和社会关系等。不同的文化产生不同的地址形式系统。因此，各种地址形式系统的差异主要在文化中提出。此外，地址形式的差异反映了跨文化交际中的文化多样性。由于不同的文化背景和社会结构，中英文地址形式存在明显差异。因此，在中英文跨文化交际领域，地址形式一直是语言学家和社会学家的热门话题。如今随着中英文化交流的扩展，对中英文形式的研究变得越来越重要，特别是在文化视角下。要研究中英文地址形式的差异，探讨两种不同的文化尤为重要。事实上，在没有对应文化的深入探索的情况下，对地址形式无差异的语言的研究是一个几乎无法进入的过程。为了进一步探索文化内涵和地址形式的使用，许多学者从不同的角度分析了多种语言的地址形式。然而，即使通过几乎各种理由来解释不同文化中地址形式的差异，也几乎不可能得出一些无数的判断，因此本文试图以文化图式理论的认知语言学为主要理论基础，旨在寻找新的探讨和分析影响不同文化中不同地址形式系统发展和应用的文化因素。人们普遍认为，文化图式理论在解释中英地址形式差异方面具有很大的解释力。在跨文化交际中，文化图式理论的焦点在于不同文化中文化图式的差异，这是造成不同文化现象的主要原因。通过分析中英文地址形式中存在的文化图式，并运用不同类型地址形式的例子，本研究表明，在跨文化交际中，源语言的文化图式可以用目标语言解释，人们可以获得更好的认知效果。与源语言的文化图式相对应。因此，通过分析主要影响地址形式系统的中英文化图式来理解中英文地址形式的文化差异是必要的。Language is not only an important tool of human communication, but also a mirror ofculture. As an important part of language, address forms are deeply loaded in cultures.Address forms carry a lot of information about people, including identity, profession,status and social relationships and so on. Different cultures produce different systems ofaddress forms. Therefore, the differences of various systems of address forms are mainlyrooted in the cultures. Besides, differences of the address forms reflect the culturaldiversity in cross-cultural communication. With different cultural backgrounds and socialstructures, there are obvious differences in Chinese and English address forms. Thereforein the field of Chinese and English cross-cultural communication, address forms havealways been a hot topic of both linguists and sociologists. Nowadays with the expansionof the Chinese and English cultural communication, the studies on Chinese and Englishaddress forms become increasingly important, especially in the cultural perspective.To study the differences between Chinese and English address forms, it is especiallyimportant to explore the two different cultures. In fact, the research of address forms indifferent languages is an almost inaccessible process without the deep explorations in thecorresponding cultures. Trying to further explore the cultural connotation and the use ofaddress forms, many scholars have analyzed from different perspectives and comparedaddress forms of multiple languages. However, it is almost impossible to conclude auniversally verdict even through nearly all sorts of reasons to explain the differences ofaddress forms in different cultures, so this paper tries to use cultural schemata theory incognitive linguistics as the main theoretical basis with the aim to find a new way toexplore and analyze the cultural factors which influence the development and applicationof different systems of address forms in different cultures.It has been widely recognized that cultural schemata theory has big explanatorypower in explaining the differences between Chinese and English address forms. Incross-cultural communication, the focus of cultural schemata theory lies in the differencesof cultural schemata in different cultures, which are the main reasons accounting for thedifferent cultural phenomena. Through analyzing cultural schemata which exist in Chineseand English address forms and using examples of different types of address forms, thisstudy shows that in cross-cultural communication when cultural schemata of the sourcelanguage can be interpreted by that of the target language people can achieve a bettercognitive effect in correspondence of the cultural schemata of source language. So it isnecessary to understand the cultural differences of Chinese and English address forms bythe way of analyzing Chinese and English cultural schemata which mainly influences theirsystems of address forms.
1.2 Significance of the Research
Address forms study was originally identified as a purely linguistic phenomenon.Early social linguists have done the studies of address forms from different perspectives.They take address form as a recognized form of verbal communication in people's socialidentities