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小额信贷对小型企业经济的影响 [3]

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2016-06-09编辑:lily点击率:18713

论文字数:5258论文编号:org201606061620504176语种:英语 English地区:南非价格:免费论文

关键词:小额信贷小微企业经济

摘要:这篇文章主要阐述小额信贷对坦桑尼亚中小型企业(SMEs)发展的影响。从普瑞德坦桑尼亚有限公司和Akiba商业银行的个案分析来说明小额信贷的发展状况、取得成就以及存在不足。

banks and 5.4% private banks. The survey also included some other institutions such as faith-based organisations, the Presidential fund, parastatal organisations and government institutions supporting SMEs (23.8%).

The findings revealed that, MFIs used various lending mechanisms. Some of these observed included 'solidarity group' (individual lending with cross guarantorship), individual lending, and village bank lending. During the survey it was observed that the most used method was solidarity group, with individual lending and village bank lending supplementing the solidarity group method.

1.5. Profile of the MSEs

Both urban and rural SMEs were covered. The majority (98%) were located in cities and towns compared to 2% located in rural areas. SMEs covered were those established between 1980 and 2003. Most of them (64.7%) were established by capital obtained from other sources and later received a loan from a MFI. Few of them, 35.3%, were established through capital from a MFI. Among the surveyed SMEs, 59.8% were formal registered enterprises and 40.2% unregistered ones. It was further observed that most of the surveyed MFIs (73.5%) started microfinance operations between 1990 and 2001.

2.小微融资企业提供的服务类型——Types of Services Provided by MFIs


The survey revealed that, MFIs provide two types of services: financial services and non-financial services. The financial services provided by MFIs are mainly in the form of loans and savings. 89.3% of MFIs offer short-term working capital loans, of which 56% offer an investment loan of more than one year's duration in addition to the working capital and 33.3% offer different types of loans. None of the MFIs offered insurance services.

The non-financial services provided by MFIs are business advice and business training. Of the 37 MFIs surveyed, 16 (43.2%) offered business advisory services to their clients, of which only 12 offer in addition business training to their clients. However, it was observed that, the trainers were not experts or practitioners in small business operations; they were only credit officers.

坦桑尼亚中小企业发展——SMEs growth in Tanzania
The SMEs term inTanzania is used to mean micro, small and medium enterprises. It is sometimes referred to as micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs). The SMEs cover non-farm economic activities mainly manufacturing, mining, commerce and services.There is no universally accepted definition of SME. Different countries use various measures of size depending on their level of development. The commonly used yardsticks are total number of employees, total investment and sales turnover. In the context of Tanzania, micro enterprises are those engaging up to 4 people, in most cases family members or employing capital amounting up to Tshs.5.0 million. The majority of micro enterprises fall under the informal sector. Small enterprises are mostly formalised undertakings engaging between 5 and 49 employees or with capital investment from Tshs.5 million to Tshs.200 million. Medium enterprises employ between 50 and 99 people or use capital investment from Tshs.200 million to Tshs.800 million. This is illustrated in the table below (SME policy, 2002)

CATEGORIES OF SMEs IN TANZANIA
Category
Employees
Capital Investment
in Machinery (Tshs.)
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