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论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:学术文章 Scholarship Essay登出时间:2015-07-09编辑:Cinderella点击率:8148

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美国心理学家查尔斯·桑德斯·皮尔士(Charles Sanders Peirce),针对图像提出了三种类系统。图标、标志和符号。图标图像一般是此标志与真实物体之间存在着相似或者类比的关系。能够代表实际物体某一个具有特色的方面。举个例子,建筑物的模型就是建筑物的图标,能够代表这座建筑物一些特定的特征;外形,一般来说可能是颜色而不是体积。标志,从另一方面来说则属于比较复杂的种类。一个记号如果是因为某个物体所引起的,并且在物理层面上指引向了这个物体,就是索引标识。皮尔士以子弹孔的例子展示了这种标志,子弹孔就意味着这里曾经射击过一枚子弹。最后,象征符号既不是表达相似性,也不是表示某种物理因果关系,而是由这个符号使用者自己的定义来决定。

advertising often use targeted image manipulation to link their product with an enhanced version of reality. New, more seductive images continually replace those that are past their use-by-date, arguably with the primary aim of locking consumers into a cycle of spending and consumption.' (Ingenious, 2010)

American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1991), proposed a system of three categories when referring to images. The icon, the index and lastly the symbol. Iconic signs are characterised by some form of similarity or analogy between the sign and its object. Representational pictures that resemble some aspect of reality are particularly clear examples of iconic signs. For instance, a scale model of a building is an iconic representation of certain features of the real building; its shape, perhaps its colour but not its size. Indexical signs on the other hand are a complex category. A sign is indexical if it is actually caused by its object and serves as a physical trace pointing to the objects existence. Peirce illustrates this type of sign with the example of a bullet hole, which signifies that a shot was fired. Lastly, a symbol involves neither similarity nor physical causation but, instead an arbitrary convention on the part of the symbols users.

Damasio (1994) stresses the fact that 'real world vision is intimately connected with emotion, which, in turn, is tied to our functional needs as biological and social creatures.' Looking now at how advertising takes advantage of this we can distinguish two roles. The first is drawing attention to an advert, for example, in advertising images there is often someone looking directly at the spectator. This is a powerful tool that draws attention as it is a real life tendency to look back when we are looked at. The second role is eliciting a certain emotion on behalf of whatever the ad is selling. A well known example can be found in some politician images. On the assumption that looking up at someone can be associated with feelings of respect or awe, portrayals of politicians in ads or posters occasionally adopt a low angle view. This creates a certain feeling towards the person in the image; the use of low angles in this context can be considered an emotion-eliciting device. For an example of this please see Fig.1.

Looking at my first example, we have a poster campaign by the deciding vote (Fig.2), made to encourage more women to have their say and vote in elections. The first thing that hits the viewer's eye is the striking photograph that accompanies this text. We see a close up of a woman's face looking at us with troubled eyes. Her features are normal except for an obvious abnormality. Where her mouth should be there is no mouth, only a smooth, seamless continuation of the surface of her skin. This image is an excellent example of the cri论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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