留学生硕士论文 英国论文 日语论文 澳洲论文 Turnitin剽窃检测 英语论文发表 留学中国 欧美文学特区 论文寄售中心 论文翻译中心 我要定制

Bussiness ManagementMBAstrategyHuman ResourceMarketingHospitalityE-commerceInternational Tradingproject managementmedia managementLogisticsFinanceAccountingadvertisingLawBusiness LawEducationEconomicsBusiness Reportbusiness planresearch proposal


ResumeRecommendation LetterMotivation LetterPSapplication letterMBA essayBusiness Letteradmission letter Offer letter



英语论文开题报告英语毕业论文写作指导英语论文写作笔记handbook英语论文提纲英语论文参考文献英语论文文献综述Research Proposal代写留学论文代写留学作业代写Essay论文英语摘要英语论文任务书英语论文格式专业名词turnitin抄袭检查









论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2017-03-17编辑:cinq点击率:5862

论文字数:2000论文编号:org201703171723025219语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文




Title: Discuss the contention that as performance measurement has become increasingly linked to resource utilisation in many parts of the world and is increasingly used to hold departments to account for their performance that line item budgeting focuses too much on the process of delivery and that it should be replaced by a PPBS system focussing on the output. In your discussion consider why, given that the UK has been at the forefront of NPM reforms for over 20 years why line item budgeting is still a major method of budgeting used in the UK public sector.

Line-item budgeting has been used for many years and provides simple, but limited information beyond the cost of specific categories of expenditures or appropriations in order to ensure accuracy and control. On the other hand, a planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS) is a prime example of a reasonable approach to budgeting which ought to be a crucial part of decision making and resource allocation. Nonetheless, line-item budgeting, despite its critique, is still the major method of budgeting used in the UK public sector. This essay will examine why line-item budgeting is still being used as the main source of budgeting and why PPBS’s are underused even though they are potentially extremely beneficial.

New Public Management (NPM) techniques have largely increased over the years, which have resulted in the need for the public sector to manage their products more efficiently and effectively. The use of NPM methods has proven to be beneficial in some cases, such as: “cost savings in road maintenance” (Larbi 1999), and as demonstrated by Ward (2007), cases such as public library management have also proven to be beneficial: “the outcomes of NPM included accountability, cost savings, and citizen’s use/satisfaction.” Other bodies which come under the NPM also include “prisons, mental health, social care, young persons, military and immigration detention centres” (Murray, Evans, Steinerte and De Wolf 2008) to name a few. The fact that cost savings are the main focus on NPM techniques illustrates how budgeting is crucial for public management and thus it is important to use the correct budgeting method, namely line-item budgeting or PPBS.

Line-item budgeting (also known as “traditional” budgeting) has been widely used for many years to assign different amounts to each line of the budget. It has been said that line item budgeting will “reduce spending” (Holtz-Eakin 1988) and that “the major benefit is that the budget is viewed as a sum of its parts and that each part is considered separately in terms of some measure of perceived need” (Thompson, Wood and Crampton, 2008: 142). It has further been stated that “the most prevalent modern form of expenditure budgeting is line-item budgeting and it is the form par excellence of the hierarchy” (Rabin 1992: 论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

共 1/4 页首页上一页1234下一页尾页

英国英国 澳大利亚澳大利亚 美国美国 加拿大加拿大 新西兰新西兰 新加坡新加坡 香港香港 日本日本 韩国韩国 法国法国 德国德国 爱尔兰爱尔兰 瑞士瑞士 荷兰荷兰 俄罗斯俄罗斯 西班牙西班牙 马来西亚马来西亚 南非南非