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英国assignment写作范文:丰田的改善理念 Toyota Philosophy of Kaizen

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:作业 Assignment登出时间:2017-07-24编辑:cinq点击率:7909

论文字数:2000论文编号:org201707241352412591语种:英语 English地区:英国价格:免费论文





In the bend of the seventies, the scientific management (Taylorism and Fordism) appears in gap growing, out of step with the new standards of the society. Henceforth markets require diversified and reliable (even individualized!) products. That implies flexibility, reactivity, innovationa| These constraints require the implication, the motivation, the versatility, the initiative and the ability to react from the employees, to the detriment of strict submission and obedience. A new logic of production (adaptation of the productive system to the requirements of the market) was required: Toyotism appeared.

Toyota Motors Corporation is today the largest vehicle manufacturer in the world. Toyota's success is due to two mains techniques created by Taiichi OHNO (1912-1990), a former president of Toyota in order to compete with the American car industry (Ford particularly). He invented the 'TPS': Toyota Production System, also named Toyotism and the 'JIT': just in time. This model was implemented by Toyota since 1962. Those working organization forms were then broadcasted to the USA and Europe.

First we will define what is Toyotism, then we will study the evolution of the Toyotism forms and finally, we will see how Toyotism lead to Toyota's management today.

About Toyotism
Major principles

Toyotism has two major principles: the 'just in time' system and the 'autonomation' system.

The 'just in time' system which means production in 'just in time' conditions contributes to eliminate inventory. Indeed, stocks are very expensive for the company because it is necessary to conserve goods in perfect shape in huge buildings. Indeed, some goods require a special preservation system which can also be very costly. You also need to pay for storage building. Moreover, the produced goods have generated costs (especially in a country like Japan were space is limited), that are not compensated by sales.

More precisely, inventory reduction relies on the Kanban method that consists in producing when demand manifests itself. We start from the command sent to the company to go back upstream to the fabrication level. Thus, it is the final consumer that launches production. Production is then said to be in 'tight management' or in 'tense flows', contrary to Fordism.

Indeed, thanks to just in time (the approach of continuous and forced problem solving via a focus on rapid throughput and reduced inventory), products or raw materials necessary to production arrive when and where they are needed. No more waste and no more delays, so it reduces costs! Thus, the JIT production helps reducing cost by eliminating waste, removing variability and improving throughput.

Autonomation (= autonomy + automation) or auto-activation is the second Toyotism principle. The kaizen perfectly describes the principle of continuous improvement of the system. The kaizen is the principle of empowerment of the teams to define standard durations of producti论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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