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论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:学期论文 termpaper登出时间:2016-02-18编辑:anne点击率:2699

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为了使人类因气候变化带来的重要威胁国际协议制定了---京都议定书,其全称是联合国气候变化框架公约的京都议定书(简称UNFCCC),在今年十月获得通过1997年在日本京都。它的目的是为目标“将大气到适当的水平限制的温室气体的浓度,从而防止会导致损害人类急剧的气候变化”。主要的温室气体是二氧化碳,因此增加的国家已采取部分成方案,以避免或租赁来减少二氧化碳排放量。一个流行的和有争议的措施是制定一个碳限额与交易或碳税,这是一个经济杠杆来调节和影响着人们的经济行为(二氧化碳排放量的最高上限)。这一措施有效,因为它增加了几乎所有可能的价格由一个或大或小的百分比,因为大多数的我们购买或现在做的与能源相关的一定程度上的东西。要考虑这个成本的增加可能会改变人们的做事方式。当然,也会有利弊,当谈到这个话题,本文将围绕在美国,这些问题的反应,双方给出一个简短的讨论。简要分析之后,本文将介绍在这个有争议的话题的个人观点。In order to spare human beings the threats brought by climate change, the important international agreement---Kyoto Protocol, whose full name is Kyoto protocol of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (short for UNFCCC), was passed in October of the year 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It aims at the goal of ‘Limiting greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere to a proper level and thus prevents drastic climate changes that would cause damages to human beings ’. The main greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide, so increasing countries has taken part into programs to avoid or at lease to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One of the popular and controversial measure is to enact a carbon cap (the maximum ceiling of carbon dioxide emission) and trade or a carbon tax, which is an economic leverage to adjust and affect people’s economic behaviors. This measure works because it adds the price of virtually everything probably by a small or large percentage since most of the things we buy or do now is related with energy to some extent. To consider this cost increase may change people’s way of doing things. Of course, there will be pros and cons when it comes to this topic, this paper will give a brief discussion in two sides around these issue reactions in the United States. After the brief analysis, the paper will present the personal point of view on this debatable topic.

Since the united States is a large country with its carbon dioxide emission taking up almost 25% of the global carbon dioxide emission, though all its population is only 3%-4% of the global total, actions that are taken by the American government will work as a wind indicator for other countries and have a far reaching influence on the rest of the world. Although having signed the Kyoto protocol in the year 1998, the Bush Administration refused to approve this Protocol in April of 2001 by saying that the policy to reduce greenhouse gases emission would have adverse effects on the US economy and that developing countries also have to bear similar obligations to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (Tiberghien, Y., & Schreurs, M. A., 2007). But why is this case? Some people hold a negative opinion in this way: Limiting the carbon dioxide emission by an emission cap or carbon tax will require many people to change their current lifestyle in order to deal with the policy. And change of any kind will have a price to pay for. Under this added cost for various energies, products and services, people’s psychological expectation of living standard is lowered and hurt, the economically poor people in particular when they cannot afford any small increase in the cost of living. Apart from this, the current struggling and floundering economy in America in the aftermath of 2008 world financial crisis implies the moment is not the best time to implement such a policy of refraining purchasing of goods (because of energy limitation of carbon dioxide)when an aggressive policy of economy stimulus is in urgent need.


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