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美国和日本商业谈判差异

论文作者:英语论文论文属性:学术文章 Scholarship Essay登出时间:2015-05-09编辑:g790726705点击率:2569

论文字数:1216论文编号:org201505060823595798语种:英语论文 English地区:美国价格:免费论文

关键词:

摘要:探讨美国和日本文化差异对商业谈判的影响

开展任何业务都需要很多技巧。这些技巧通常包括谈判,谈判是一个自愿的过程,涉及的各方可以在常见业务问题上达成协议。谈判的目的是提高业务筹码;去得到一个较好的处理方式,而不仅仅是接受或者拒绝别人提出的建议。然而,按照Alder提出的忽略文化差异,这个谈判过程就是简单的商业沟通,信息交换和决策。但是商业谈判是这篇论文关注的焦点,关于商业谈判中文化的影响问题将会被评估和细致的讨论,关注美国和日本这个案例,可以简单的了解这些国家的谈判风格。


商业谈判的文化:美国文化VS日本文化:


Greet Hofestede通过大量的研究发现了五个与国际商务有关的民族文化差异维度。它们分别是权力差距,不确定性规避,个人主义和集体主义,还有男性主义。大多数描述商业谈判的作者都试图分析和测试这些差异,想要弄明白这些差异和商业谈判之间的关系。


Business Negotiation   


Japan VS United States Introduction: 

Undertaking any business requires a number of skills. These would normally involve negotiation which is defined as a voluntary process by which the involved parties could reach an agreement on common business matters (Cellich and Jain 2004). One of the main purposes of such a process is to enhance the elements of the business at hand; to gain a better deal than simply accepting or rejecting what the other party has already offered. However, according to Alder (1991) regardless of cultural differences, the negotiation process involves business communications, exchanging information and decision making. However, the area of business negotiation is the focus of this paper, as issues relating to the effect of culture on business negotiation process will be evaluated and critically discussed; focusing on the case of Japan and United State, where the negotiation styles in these countries are briefly examined. 


Culture aspects of business negotiation: American culture VS Japanese Culture: 

Greet Hofestede (1994), after extensive research found five dimensions of culture which are relevant to the international business. These are power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, and masculinity. The majority of authors who wrote about business negotiation tried to analyze and to test theses dimensions to understand the relationship between them and business negotiation. 


Power Distance: Japan has a higher power distance when compared with the united state according to Hofetede’s cultural dimension. Equality, a horizontal relationship, is strongly valued in the United States but it is less important in Japan (Graham and Sano 1985). Therefore it seems that when conducting a business negotiation with a Japanese, the first thing to do is to find out their position. In order to indentify who has the higher social status and where could they fit within the people involved in the negotiation. In high power distance societies like Japan, people occupying senior positions are more likely to use their position power in negotiating. 


Individualism versus collectivism: individualism represents the extant to which a country emphasizes the role of individuals rather than the collective contribution of the group. In individualistic societies people feel little need for dependency on each other such as the united state as it shows high rating in individualism unlike Japan which has very low rating of individualism and they are considered more dependent on group contribution rather than that of the individual (Cellich and Jain 2004). However Americans can be more self-centred and individual goals are mostly emphasized. 

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