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组织行为学管理理论 Organisation and Behaviour Management Theory

论文作者:佚名论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2009-03-14编辑:点击率:9034

论文字数:1200论文编号:org200903142255122433语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:组织行为学Organisation and BehaviourManagement Theory

Management theory can be traced back hundreds of years, however it
only started to surface systematically at the start of the nineteenth
century along side the emergence of large industrial movement and the
allied problems with management and structure of larger industrial
companies. There are four main frames in which management theories are
fixed around. These are Classic, Human Relations, System and
Contingency.

Classic theory sees the organisation as a formal structure and places
emphasis on planning of work, technical requirements of the
organisation, the principals of management and rational and logical
behaviour. A clear perceptive of the purpose of the organisation is
seen to be an essential in order to understand how the methods of
working the organisation use and thus how to improve them. The
classical writers Mooney and Reiley set out a number of principals
that are common to all types of organisation. These are:

* The principle of co-ordination – the unity of people to work
together, the exercise of authority and the need to keep a tight
control over employees.

* The Scalar principle – the hierarchy of organisation and the
process of delegation

* The functional principle – specialisation and the distinction of
different kinds of duties.

The classical writers have been criticised for being too rigid and not
taking into account the different personalities of organisations.
Classical writers are also regarded as an out-of-date approach,
however it does highlight important factors such as the technical and
structural factors of the business. There are two main components of
classical theory. These are scientific management and bureaucracy.

Scientific writers/theorists concentrate mainly on improving
management in order to improve productivity. F W Taylor is seen to be
the ‘guru’ of the scientific management theorists. Tailors view was
the way to improve productivity was to work out the one best method to
do the job in hand. Taylor devised away in which he could breakdown
the job into different parts. These parts are then timed and
rearranged in order to create the most efficient way in which the job
can be done. Taylor set out guidelines for managers to follow and are
summarised in the following points

* The development of a true science for each person’s work;

* The scientific selection, training and development of the workers

* Co-operation of the workers to ensure work is carried out in a
prescribed way;

* The division of work and responsibility between management and the
workers.

Taylor’s most famous study is with a company called Bethlehem Steel
Cooperation where they employed men to load 12 ½ tones of pig iron
each, a day. After Taylor was appointed management consultant,
productivity for each person went up 380% to 47 ½ tons each per day.

The other half of classical theory is bureaucracy and is mainly found
in large organisation. The importance of bureaucracy means that it is
often studied separately from classical management, which the ideas
are taken from practical experience. However bureaucracy takes a more
theoretical view.

Whilst studying the power and authority of organisations, a German
sociologist, Webber came across, something that he calle论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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