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insurance :传统养老保险功能的弱化

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:硕士毕业论文 thesis登出时间:2013-08-29编辑:yangcheng点击率:3769

论文字数:1131论文编号:org201308282057293761语种:英语论文 English地区:中国价格:免费论文

关键词:社会保险保险投资养老保险

摘要:在我国,社会保障制度最突出的一个特点就是二元经济结构所导致的“二元”社会保险制度。城镇职工参加社会养老保险,在年老时能享受到国家和社会给予的物质帮助,分享社会发展的成果,而农民在现实中往往不能在年老时与城镇职工一样分享社会发展的成果,这中二元化社会保险制度对社会造成了极坏的影响。

由于生育率的下降和人口流动频率的加快,促使家庭养老功能弱化。上世纪70年代中期,我国开始实行计划生育政策,随着计划生育政策普及、深入农村后,农村家庭的子女逐渐减少,劳动人口负担系数加大。2005年全国1%人口抽样调查主要数据表明,农村平均每个家庭户的人口仅为3.27人,农村家庭养老方式变得越来越脆弱。尤其是随着工业化和城市化的加快,大批农村青年劳动力纷纷离开农村涌入城市。农村劳动力的迁移尤其是青壮年人口跨地区或城乡迁移对农村家庭养老产生了消极的影响。

As fertility declines and population movements frequency accelerating, prompting the family pension functions have weakened. Mid-1970s, China began to implement the family planning policy, with the popularity of the family planning policy, go to the countryside after the children of rural families gradually reduce the burden of the labor force coefficient increased. 2005 China 1% Population Sample Survey data show that the main rural population per household is only 3.27 people, the rural family pension ways become increasingly vulnerable. Especially with the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization, a large number of rural youth are leaving the labor force in rural areas into cities. Migration of the rural labor force population, especially young regional or rural-urban migration on rural family pension had a negative impact. Parents gradually lost power in charge of the household economy, decline in family status, and their children, but with a strong economic independence, so that the cohesion of rural family pension should be gradually reduced. Second, the rural family pension thinking has changed. On the one hand, by the market economy and other factors, the traditional concept of the family and old values have a strong impact, many farmers were no longer adhere to "raise children to old age" of the old ideology, began to look forward to and an urgent requirement and urban residents enjoy the same social old-age insurance benefits. Other hand, many young men go out to work in rural areas vulnerable to Western integration of urban culture is strongly influenced by the traditional "filial piety" Concept fade, resulting in loss of family pension traditional cultural support.

 

随着农村经济和农村社会的发展,农村土地保障功能开始下降,主要原因有:农村耕地面积不断减少和农业生产资料价格持续上涨,土地经营的要素成本和机会成本提高,农民来自土地的收入呈下降趋势,因此土地的保障功能逐渐弱化。

With the rural economic and social development in rural areas, rural land protection functions begin to decline for two main reasons: ① Rural declining arable land and agricultural production materials prices continue to rise, the elements of land management costs and opportunity costs, the income of farmers from the land downward trend, so land protection function gradually weakened. MLR report show that in 1996 an 2005, China's net decrease of 1.2 million acres of arable land. According to statistics of the Ministry of Land, as of the end of 2004, China's arable land area of 18.31 million mu, 1.4 mu per capita. If an average annual rate of decline of 0.12 million mu, 2030, there will be only 14.98 million mu of cultivated land in China. Experts predict that by 2030, China's population will reach 1.45 billion by then, per capita arable land is only 1.03 acres. Such a low per capita arable land to farmers will be unable to provide sufficient employment opportunities, more farmers can not achieve better protection functions. ② With the rapid development of market economy and industrialization and urbanization continues to expand, landless peasants increased significantly. Large number of rural laborers to cities, the household contract land system is increasingly being marginalized, many rural lands appear to be neglected, abandoned phenomenon, farm论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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