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International Trading essay:WTO世界贸易组织

论文作者:www.51lunwen.org论文属性:短文 essay登出时间:2015-11-04编辑:chenyuting点击率:2100

论文字数:2511论文编号:org201511031908482703语种:英语论文 English地区:英国价格:免费论文

关键词:WTO世界贸易组织转基因食品

摘要:本文主要叙述了世界贸易组织(WTO)的成立,发展过程,以及它在世界上的地位和主要的职能-解决国家间的争端。

International Trading essay:WTO世界贸易组织

世界贸易组织(“WTO”)位于瑞士日内瓦。它成立于1995年1月并且已经在1986年-1994年的乌拉圭回合谈判中创造。

会员国目前约有146个国家,世界贸易组织是大部分成员国进行协议、谈判和签署的结合。这些协议包括国际贸易的法律规则,这是一种合同义务,对各国政府具有约束力,提供透明度和可预测性。

WTO保留了她前身GATT的核心业务,谈判和执行工业品市场准入规则,但已经有了比GATT更进一步的发展。它现在提供农业、纺织和服装市场准入的规则和服务;它对知识产权保护有很强的协议;对贸易程序的详细报道,如补贴、贸易、卫生标准、海关估价和进口许可证等。

世界贸易组织的主要作用之一是解决国家间的争端。例如在星期三解决加拿大于欧洲的贸易争端,表示世界贸易组织将对转基因食品的进口进行限制,该国将放弃六年的投诉。在2003年,阿根廷,加拿大和美国分别挑战欧洲联盟处理转基因食品进口的方式。三年后,贸易机构裁定,从1984到2004欧洲根据贸易协定的方法有效地禁止了转基因产品和非法活动。加拿大与欧洲的抱怨主要集中在出口油菜,一种油料种子。但这个问题在几个月前得到了解决。

The world trade organisation

The World Trade Organisation ('WTO') is located in Geneva, Switzerland. It was established in January 1995 having been created by the Uruguay Round negotiations of 1986-94.

Membership is around 146 countries at present.The WTO is a combination of agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations. These agreements consist of legal ground-rules for international commerce, which are contractual obligations, that are binding on the governments, offering transparency and predictability.

The WTO retains the essential core business of its predecessor, GATT, in negotiating and enforcing rules for market access in industrial goods, but has gone further than the GATT. It now provides rules for market access in agriculture, textiles and clothing, and services; it has a strong agreement on intellectual property protection; and more detailed coverage of trade procedures, such as on subsidies, technical barriers to trade, sanitary standards, customs valuation and import licensing to name a few.

One of the main roles of The World Trade Organisation is to settle disputes between countries. For example Canada settled a trade dispute with Europe on Wednesday that will lead to the country dropping its six-year-old complaint at the World Trade Organization over European restrictions on imports of genetically modified food. In 2003, Argentina, Canada and the United States separately challenged the way the European Union handles genetically modified food imports. Three years later, the trade body ruled that Europe's methods from 1984 to 2004 were effectively a ban on genetically modified products and illegal under the trade agreement. Canada's complaint with Europe was focused on exports of canola, an oil seed. But that problem was actually resolved some months ago.

In exchange for Canada's dropping its trade complaint, the World Trade Organisation settled the dispute and Europe agreed to meet twice a year with Canadian officials to review the European Union restrictions on genetically modified food. Those sessions will also try to ensure they approve new biotech products at the same time.

Clearly the WTO has established a free market, offering access to other Members, whilst ensuring hat neither country's produce is discriminated against. Done though a series of agreements, the Members have agreed to adhere to the rules laid down in a uniform manner to other Member countries or face being brought before the dispute settlement body with the possibility of compensation or sanctions.

With its similarities to the WTO, the EU is clearly one of the largest and most comprehensive entity combining fifteen member states. The European Commission speaks for the member states at almost all of the WTO meeti论文英语论文网提供整理,提供论文代写英语论文代写代写论文代写英语论文代写留学生论文代写英文论文留学生论文代写相关核心关键词搜索。

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